Guided by the determination to establish an ecological state, Montenegro was among the first countries in the region of South-East Europe that defined the strategic and institutional framework for sustainable development, in accordance with the standards of the developed EU member states. In cooperation with the UN University for Peace, in 2001, Montenegro developed a comprehensive document “Directions for the development of Montenegro as an ecological state”. At the same time, this document represented a national response to the goals defined in Agenda 21. After the stabilization of the political situation and the opening of the European perspective for the countries of South-Eastern Europe, Montenegro has made significant progress in the development of a national policy of sustainable development and the creation of the necessary institutional framework. Following successful participation at the Sustainable Development Summit in Johannesburg, the National Council for Sustainable Development was established as an advisory body to the Government of Montenegro with the aim of strengthening the capacity to implement sustainable development policies. Since 2002, the Council was chaired by the Prime Minister, and since 2013 it is chaired by the President of the State.
Along with the beginning of implementation of sustainable development programs and projects, the process of drafting the National Strategy for Sustainable Development of Montenegro was initiated. The first National Strategy for Sustainable Development of Montenegro (hereinafter: NSSD MNE) adopted in 2007, represented a step forward in the effort to implement the commitment on the development of Montenegro as an ecological state. When drafted, it relied on the guidelines and objectives of the strategic documents, primarily the Directions for development of Montenegro as an ecological state, and the Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy. The strategy has incorporated the most significant commitments contained in the national and European documents, and was developed in cooperation with the Mediterranean Commission for Sustainable Development (MCSD) and the Mediterranean Action Plan of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP/MAP). At the same time, document offered national responses to the commitments arising from two World Summits on Sustainable Development (1992 and 2002).
A special value is added to this document by its five-year action plan for the period 2007-2012, which defines measures in order to achieve the objectives of sustainable development in the 24 priority areas of sustainable development of the Montenegrin society. After adoption, and through the NSSD evaluation process, a number of objectives, measures and related indicators in the Action Plan were amended.
After a five-year period of implementation, good results were achieved - the percentage of implemented measures is 53%, while the area of environment is lagging behind to some extent compared to the results achieved in the field of economy, and a bit less when compared to the results in the field of social development. Although this corresponds to the aggravating circumstances that the society faced in the period of social and economic transition, we are aware of the difficulties of dealing with the challenges of the still present unsustainable development trends.
Given that the deadline for implementation of the Action Plan of the Strategy expired in 2012, that there were many changes in Montenegro that have affected the development of institutional and legal framework relevant for the sustainable development of society, especially those that are related to the EU accession process and harmonization of national legislation with the EU acquis, and the fact that new programs and initiatives were launched at the national and international level with the aim of redefining the United Nations sustainable development policy, especially after the Rio+20 Summit in 2012, it was estimated that the conditions for review of the NSSD have been created. In this regard, the NSSD review was launched in 2013. However the negotiations on the definition of the global post 2015 sustainable development agenda, which were conducted based on the conclusions and the final document of the Rio + 20 Summit, "The Future We Want", have shown that the process of drafting a new national strategy was opened too early, that is, at the moment when there was only a basis for conducting international negotiations under the auspices of the United Nations aimed at defining the generally acceptable and generally-binding international framework that, among other things, determine the obligations and requirements to the UN member states in terms of building national institutional systems, modalities for monitoring and reporting on the implementation and financing of sustainable development.
Starting from the vision of sustainable development of Montenegro, set in the 2007 NSSD, and the assessment of the development priorities of Montenegro expressed by the citizens of Montenegro within the consultative process “Montenegro We Want” as part of the post-millennium consultations, and later in the consultative process that followed the development of the new NSSD for the period until 2030, the vision of sustainable development of Montenegro until 2030 was defined, and it consists of ten key elements, as follows:
Share of energy out of renewable sources is continuously growing, while energy efficiency and transfer of technological solutions is enabled which contributes to raising the quality of life in urban areas and to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Reduction of the level of greenhouse gas emission until 2030 is achieved for 30% in respect to 1990.
Development of the new sustainable development policy of Montenegro was organized in three phases over the period from July 2013 to May 2016. As part of this process, the Proposal of NSSD until 2030 was prepared in the period from September 2015 to May 2016, through the redefinition of the process initiated in 2013 in accordance with the UN requirements. Below is a detailed overview of all phases in the process of drafting NSSD for the period until 2030. Unsatisfactory results achieved in 2013 and 2014 are partially the result of initiating the drafting process of the new national sustainable development policy too early, well before the conclusion of international negotiations on the UN Agenda for sustainable development by 2030, which was adopted at the Sustainable Development Summit within the 70th UN General Assembly session, in the period 25-27 September 2015. However, in the final stage of the process, the Proposal of NSSD until 2030 has been drafted, which is fully compliant with the requirements of the United Nations and in the opinion of relevant UN bodies it is one of the best documents prepared at the national level. That is why the Proposed NSSD until 2030 will be presented at the session of the High Level Political Forum in the framework of the UN Department of Social and Economic Affairs, to be held in July at the UN headquarters.
The Government of Montenegro adopted the first National Strategy for Sustainable Development (hereinafter: NSSD) in April 2007, together with a corresponding Action Plan (AP) for the period of 2007-2012. Since then, the Government adopted five annual reports on the NSSD implementation: First Annual Report in October 2008, Second Annual Report in December 2009, Third Annual Report in October 2011, Fourth Annual Report in June 2012 and Fifth Annual Report in July 2013. All the reports have been prepared by the Division for Sustainable Development and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (formerly the Office for Sustainable Development - OSD).
The first NSSD adopted in 2007 was a step towards making an effort to materialize and make concrete the declarative commitment of Montenegro to be an ecological state. In the period of its drafting, it relied on the guidelines and goals set in strategic documents of that time, such as the Directions for Development of Montenegro as an Ecological State, Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy and other strategies at the national level, as well as on the Mediterranean Strategy of Sustainable Development (MSSD), conclusions reached at the two world summits on sustainable development and their key documents (1992 and 2002) and on other instruments for achievement of sustainable development.
Since its adoption, the NSSD has been revised in the evaluation process in its part containing the Action Plan when a number of goals, measures and related indicators were revised, which was done in accordance with the reports on implementation and progress made by other programmes, and also in accordance with their results that had been achieved in Montenegro in the meantime. Since the time-frame for implementation of the Action Plan of this Strategy has expired and since many changes have taken place in Montenegro in the meantime, particularly in terms of reforms related to EU integration and harmonization of national legislation with the EU Acquis, and also given that new sustainable development programmes and initiatives have been launched at the national and international levels, conditions are in place for revision of the NSSD which needs to be harmonized with the new policies and strategies, especially global intergovernmental process of defining Post 2015 Agenda.
Process of development of the new NSSD was initiated one year after the Rio+20 Conference. In October 2013, the Basis for NSSDreview was presented in the meetings held in four cities in the northern, southern and central region of Montenegro. Based on the comments and analytical work of the team of consultants, a broader basis was defined and it was called the Platform for the development of NSSD 2015-2020 (hereinafter referred to as the Platform); it contains a general analysis of the current situation and directions for further development of Montenegro. The Platform was presented to the general public, experts, representatives of the academia, civil society and representatives of public institutions in seven workshops (in Budva, Bar, Herceg Novi, Pljevlja, Mojkovac and Danilovgrad) in all three regions of Montenegro, with the final workshop organized in Podgorica, in March 2014. Expert evaluation and public opinion stated that the Platform is incomplete in terms of content that the Draft NSSD should include. Participants in the consultations were mostly critical of the offered concept. Suggestions presented on that occasion indicated the necessity of significant changes in the work of the expert team in the development of this document. Comments related particularly to the analysis of the current situation, which was not based on the assessment of drivers and causes of the problem and failed to specify in more detail the problems to which the new NSSD should define the answers. For that reason, this document was not approved as a basis for further elaboration of the Draft NSSD. In parallel, in the context of international negotiations under the auspices of the United Nations, a UN Open Working Group was established to define sustainable development goals (OWG SDGs). And this process confirmed that the presented criticisms of the Platform was justified, and that there is a need to rectify the noted deficiencies in the process of NSSD drafting, both in terms of methodology, and its content.
Therefore, the restructuring of the Platform was initiated, especially having in mind that the document was prepared without an analysis of causes, and the analysis of drivers, pressures, state, impact, as a basis for defining response (DPSIR), as well as the development of new methodological approach in line with the course of negotiations under UN auspices and in line with good practice in the development of the previous NSSD, with the drafting process of the new Mediterranean Strategy of Sustainable Development, and based on the experience of some countries that have started or completed development of a new generation of national sustainable development strategies, and the EUROSTAT report on successful implementation of sustainable development policies within the EU. On that occasion, an in-depth analysis of the process and the document prepared until then was undertaken, and it indicated that the drafting of a new document started without previously performed basic analyses, and preparation of the analytical basis for the writing of this strategic document. Drafting process is coordinated and technically supervised by the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism, i.e. it is supervised by the National Council for Sustainable Development.
In May 2014, on its 26th session of National Council for Sustainable Development and Climate Changes, members of the Council were informed on results and dynamics of the development of NSSD. The National Council has approved a new Outline for further work on revision of NSSD/preparation of a new strategy for the period after 2015 with special focus on the following: to develop a methodology for developing the NSSD Montenegro for the period after 2015, to define main goals and priorities, to define approach to the set of national resources of Montenegro, to define policies for sustainable development, action plan, governance plan for implementation of the NSSD for the period after 2015, project portfolio of the action plan, and financing of a sustainable development policies.
At its session held on 26 June 2014, the Government of Montenegro assigned the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism with the task to coordinate continuation of activities regarding the new NSSD, and in accordance with the redefined, recommended structure, content and dynamics of the NSSD review process, to prepare a completely new document instead of reviewing the 2007 NSSD. Having in mind the aforementioned shortcomings, simultaneously with the continuation of work on the document itself, activities were undertaken to obtain the missing expert analyses necessary in the NSSD drafting process. The following analyses were undertaken:
As the planned progress in drafting the National Strategy of Sustainable Development in accordance with the aforementioned approach was not made in 2014, at the 27th session of the National Council held on 28 January 2015, it was assessed that it is necessary to improve the expert involvement in the preparation of the NSSD, so that the new strategy can be prepared by the end of 2015. In order to strengthen the expert team engaged in the development of the NSSD, MSDT allocated additional funds to hire an adequate expert team for the preparation of the final Proposal of NSSD. The expert team that was additionally hired became operational in September 2015 and was responsible for the preparation of the Proposal of NSSD until 2030, with the accompanying Action Plan. In all that, this document should enable the translation of the UN agenda for sustainable development by 2030 into the national policy of sustainable development. At the same time, the new NSSD until 2030 represented a strategic framework for translation of sustainable development indicators into the national context.
Namely, the expert team that was additionally hired was responsible to implement the following tasks:
As the Resolution on the Agenda for Sustainable Development by 2030, together with sustainable development goals and defined sustainable development financing framework, was adopted in the Sustainable Development Summit within the 70th UN General Assembly session, held on 25-27 September 2015, it was necessary for the expert team to review the NSSD drafting process up to that moment from the point of view of the adopted resolution. Therefore it was very important to include results of actual global process of defining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are to give shape to national sustainable development policies. Namely, the 193 Member States of the United Nations General Assembly formally adopted the2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that is composed of 17 goals and 169 targets. It is universal, integrated and transformative agenda to spur actions that will end poverty and build a more sustainable world over the next 15 years. The new goals are part of an ambitious, bold sustainable development agenda that will focus on the three interconnected elements of sustainable development: economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection. SDGs and targets are global in nature and universally applicable, taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities. They are not independent from each other—they need to be implemented in an integrated manner. The SDGs are the result of a three–year–long transparent, participatory process inclusive of all stakeholders and people’s voices. They represent an unprecedented agreement around sustainable development priorities among 193 Member States. They have received world–wide support from civil society, business, parliamentarians, and other actors. The Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development also became an integral part of the 2030 Agenda. This document is focused on the challenges of financing and creates an enabling environment at all levels for sustainable development in the spirit of global partnership and solidarity.
Having in mind all of the aforementioned, this review covers the period of drafting of the NSSD and corresponding action plan, as well as final public consultations in 2016 that will result in the final NSSD Proposal for formal adoption by the Montenegrin Government.
After intensive work of engaged experts and strong support of the Ministry, the Draft NSSD with Action plan was prepared in December 2015. The document was supported by the National Council for Sustainable Development and Climate Change on 9 December 2015. Montenegrin Government adopted the Draft NSSD with Action plan at its session held on 28 December 2015. Along with the Draft National Strategy of Sustainable Development by 2030, the Government also defined the public consultations program for the period of 60 days. The Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism conducted the public consultations on the Draft of the NSSD in accordance with the Public Consultations Program and the consultative part of the participatory process in the period from February to April, as presented under bullets 2.4 and 2.5. After three-month public consultations, Government of Montenegro adopted NSSD on 7 July 2016.
In the meantime, on 6 March 2015, the United Nations Statistical Commission created an Inter-agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators (IAEG-SDGs), composed of Member States and including regional and international agencies as observers, with mandate to provide a proposal of a global indicator framework. The IAEG-SDGs was established to develop an indicator framework for the monitoring of the goals and targets of the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development at the global level and to support its implementation. They proposed a list of 241 SDGs indicators that are included in the final phase of preparation of the NSSD for Montenegro. For that reason, along with the public consultations on the Draft NSSD until 2030, there was a new chapter 7 drafted that refers to monitoring of NSSD implementation and measuring sustainability of development in Montenegro by 2030; based on that, the indicators to monitor progress in the implementation of sustainable development policy were included in the NSSD Action Plan.
Amendments to the Draft NSSD until 2030 were made in order to introduce an integrated system of sustainable development indicators, in order to monitor and report on implementation of NSSD until 2030, following the definition of list with 241 indicators of sustainable development by the UN Statistics Committee at the 47th session, held on 8-11 March 2016.
The new National Strategy of Sustainable Development until 2030 (NSSD) improves the policy of sustainable development of Montenegro by establishing a comprehensive framework for the national response to the challenges on the path to sustainable development of the Montenegrin society by 2030, while taking into account the results of implementation of the previous NSSD and requirements in the process of accession of Montenegro to the EU. In this context, the new NSSD also sets the platform for translating Agenda for sustainable development by 2030, adopted in September 2015 at the 70th session of the UN General Assembly, i.e. global goals and targets into the national framework. The process of drafting NSSD until 2030 uses positive experiences from the global, European and processes in the Mediterranean region, and is based on the principles and recommendations of the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21, as well as the Johannesburg Declaration and the Implementation Plan. NSSD is also based on the United Nations Millennium Declaration and the results of implementation of the Millennium Development Goals. In all that, it remains consistent with the generally accepted definition of sustainable development from the Brundtland Report, in which the importance of sustainable development is defined as "meeting the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs“.
NSSD until 2030 has been prepared as an umbrella, horizontal and long-term development strategy of Montenegro, which refers not only to the environment and the economy, but also the irreplaceable human resources and valuable social capital that should facilitate prosperous development. Namely, the priority areas of NSSD until 2030 are as follows: improving the state of human resources and strengthening social inclusion, support to values, norms and behavior patterns important for the sustainability of society, preservation of natural capital, introduction of green economy, governance for sustainable development, financing for sustainable development.
Thus positioned, this strategy provides a response to: identified unsustainable development trends; conflicting sectoral policies both among themselves and with the NSSD, environmental policy; institutional framework that does not comply with the requirements of implementing the sustainable development policy and the requirements of good governance; mismatch between the public finances and the need for horizontal and vertical positioning of the priorities of sustainable development within national strategic policies, plans and programs, i.e. the mismatch of real actions with the expressed political support and official sustainable development commitments of Montenegro.
In order to achieve the objectives of sustainable development of Montenegro it is necessary to adequately respond to the key problems of use and management of national resources. Therefore, in the comprehensive assessment of the situation, the NSSD identified a number of factors that led to the unsustainable trends in the management and use of human, social, natural and economic resources, and in terms of governance for sustainable development. Overview of the key drivers, pressures, state and impacts was prepared using DPSI(R) method (drivers - pressures - state - impacts - responses). Some causes are related to more problems and vice versa - some problems are rooted in several of the mentioned causes. Systematization of the problems and the causes, and assessment of the level to which certain groups of problems and causes make the achievement of sustainable development objectives more difficult, and weaken the prospects for long-term sustainable development of the Montenegrin society, resulted in the identification of the key issues and weaknesses and related needs in terms of sustainable development of Montenegro.
Based on the assessment of the state of national resources in the four-dimensional concept (human, social, natural and economic resources) and institutional arrangements that support the sustainable development of the Montenegrin society, as well as analysis of key unsustainable trends and the needs for sustainable development by 2030 (DPSI approach - drivers, pressures, state, impacts), the priority areas and strategic goals of sustainable development of Montenegro were defined, structured as responses (R - Responses) to the problems of sustainable development of Montenegro, in order to improve the current situation and enable the achievement of the global objectives of sustainable development.
The strategic objectives of the National Strategy of Sustainable Development by 2030, with the accompanying measures and sub-measures, are defined as answers to the problems and weaknesses identified in the implementation of national sustainable development policy, while bringing them in connection with the national responses to the challenges of the implementation of global sustainable development goals by 2030. Solving these problems requires the following:
The NSSD Action Plan by 2030 contains a detailed elaboration of measures through the sub-measures and outcomes, in the framework of the strategic goals of sustainable development of Montenegro. In this way, the answers of the Montenegrin society to the problems, weaknesses and shortcomings that characterize the current state of development and the governance system are defined within the time span until 2030.
Environmental, economic and social aspects of development of Montenegro in recent decades indicate that the needs of future generations can be endangered not only by the qualitative and quantitative degradation of natural resources, but also the diminishing availability of other resources (human resources as a precondition for development and economic capital). Based on their own experiences and lessons learned, and in connection with obligations to future generations, and experiences of key international actors through global dialogue, they gave paved the way towards sustainability; in the assessment of national resources in the context of this document there is an innovative assessment of the overall Montenegrin national resources - through four-dimensional development concept. Namely, the basic NSSD principle is that production of goods and provision of services critical for the improvement of the material, mental and spiritual well-being of each generation require four basic, necessary resources: human, social, natural and economic ones. These are key national resources that must be sustainable, preserving the "right to development" to each successive generation. The NSSD until 2030 analyzes the right to development in relation to the right of an individual – a man, family and family values, and the widest social groups, in terms of governance at the state level and the level of local communities. Our responsibility to future generations obliges us to follow the approach that puts the man in the center of development, ensuring sustainable and mutually interconnected valorization of four groups of national resources. In this respect, it is necessary to ensure that the essence of sustainability is comprised of consistent political actions focused on the development of resources for posterity and prevention of decisions that reduce our national resources.
Human capital represents the sum of knowledge, skills, values, quality of personal relations and other resources available to a particular society. OECD defines human capital as the knowledge, skills, competencies and attributes embodied in individuals that facilitate the creation of personal, social and economic welfare. The 2015 Human Capital Report, which was compiled by the World Economic Forum, with 124 countries in it, does not include Montenegro. From neighboring countries, Bosnia and Herzegovina is also not taken into consideration, Slovenia is 15th, Croatia 36th, Serbia is in the 50th place, while Macedonia and Albania are in the 55th to 66th place respectively. The report points out that talent, not capital, is a key factor that connects innovation, competitiveness and economic growth in the 21st century. Given that human capital is developed through investments by the states in improving the quality of life of the people through the public system of education, healthcare and social programs, employment programs and additional education of employees who contribute to the economically stronger and socially healthier society. For a good demographic, healthcare and labor market policy, it is necessary for Montenegro to create mechanisms that encourage the sustainable development of human resources and promote social cohesion.
Moral norms and values, relationships of trust between individuals and organizations; institutions, cultural heritage and cultural activities make up the social capital of a country. The World Bank defines social capital as the institutions, relationships and norms that shape the quality and quantity of interaction in a society. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), in turn, defines it as bonds, common values and understanding in society that enable individuals and groups to trust each other and work together. Social capital has a direct effect on productivity, wellbeing and happiness of a community because the connection between its members leads to trust, cooperation and reciprocity in relations. In the context of the situation in which Montenegro is when it comes to social capital, and bearing in mind the objectives of sustainable development, within the NSSD until 2030 the following dimensions and areas for priority action were defined: the attitude of key actors towards sustainable development, system of values, trust in institutions and the rule of law, organizational culture, employability and social inclusion, regional development and cultural development and integrated protection and management of cultural heritage and areas.
The diversity and uniqueness of the natural resources of Montenegro require taking decisive action to preserve this tremendous potential in accordance with the constitutional commitment of Montenegro as an ecological state, vision, principles, strategic goals and measures of sustainable development set out in the NSSD from 2007, and the commitment expressed at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012 (Rio + 20). Based on the constitutional commitment, political will to direct socio-economic development of Montenegro towards the construction of an ecological state in accordance with the principles of sustainable development was confirmed many times. As an expression of the political will, the national policy of sustainable development was established through the implementation of NSSD and the work of the National Council for Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Also, a series of steps were made for the fulfillment of such political vision, which corresponds to a high level of awareness of the ever increasing need to protect natural resources and to reduce the dynamics of their use in relation to the dynamics of economic growth of the country and to support the increase in the quality of life of the citizens. The commitment to develop an ecological state requires and inter-generational equity transformed into an obligation not to deny the right of the future generations to have the same quality of the environment and resources that we have now. The conclusions in the Report on national consultations regarding Post-Millennium Development Goals Montenegro we wantidentify environment as one of the greatest advantages and opportunities of the country. However, it is noted that the potentials of the environment are not only underutilized, but its qualitative properties are also rapidly disrupted.
The level of economic development of Montenegro is the result of a multitude of economic and non-economic factors that have affected in the previous developmental periods both the available development factors and the state of national resources, on the one hand, and the application and quality of implementation of various development concepts. Throughout the post-war development, Montenegro was relatively and absolutely lagging behind the other Yugoslav republics, undergoing a process of intense change in its economic structure, from accelerated deagrarianization, through industrialization, to a gradual strengthening of the service sector in the last twenty years. While there has been significant economic growth and development, Montenegro's economy came out of the "Yugoslav" development phase with a low level of competitiveness (high import dependence, moderate export orientation and dependence on ex-Yugoslav market). In the long run, with the strengthening of competitiveness of the Montenegrin economy, it is possible to gradually strengthen the export orientation of the country and on this basis to adapt the selected model of development that gives the best effects on the increase in the quality of life of all our citizens on a sustainable basis. The key challenges of sustainable development of Montenegro still remain as follows: to maintain macroeconomic stability, accelerate economic growth by introducing green economy with respect, preservation and evaluation of all national resources, especially natural capital, with increased resource efficiency and increase in the level of economic competitiveness, as well as balanced development both at the regional level as well as between members of different social groups. In the upcoming medium term period, it is necessary to work on strengthening resource efficiency especially in the sector of industry and agriculture, and to try to recover, or maintain, on a sustainable basis, the participation of these two sectors in the total structure of this sector.
Comprehensive assessment of the state of national resources is contained in Chapter 2 of the NSSD until 2030, according to the following structure:
2.1. State of human resources
2.1.1. Demographic resources
2.1.3. Education and skills
2.2. State of social resources
2.2.1. On social capital
2.2.2. Attitude of the key actors towards sustainability of development
2.2.3. Value system
2.2.4. Trust in the institutions and the rule of law
2.2.5. Organizational culture
2.2.6. Employability and social cohesion
2.2.7. Balanced regional development
2.2.8. Cultural development
2.2.9. Integrated protection and management of cultural heritage and areas
2.3. State of natural resources
2.3.3. Ecosystem services
2.3.7. Environment and health
2.3.8. Space and urban development
2.3.9. Metals and non-metals (metallic, non-metallic and energy mineral raw materials)
2.3.10. Natural and anthropogenous hazards, management of risk, protection and rescue in emergencies and recovery of effects in the state of emergency
2.4. State of economic resources
2.4.1. Macroeconomic trends and sustainable management of development
2.4.2. State of sectors of key relevance for sustainable development of the society
2.5. Governance for sustainable development
2.5.1. Introduction of institutional and strategic framework for sustainable development
2.5.2. Environmental management system
In line with the aforementioned approach and the summary evaluation of the situation and the methodology for drafting the NSSD shown in item 2.2, the structure and content of NSSD until 2030 are set out as follows:
The NSSD Action Plan by 2030 defines also the control measures that are necessary in order to establish an information system and database as key instruments to enable the application of measurable indicators in the context of monitoring progress in the implementation of the goals of sustainable development. Besides, this chapter also assigns tasks to the relevant entities in terms of collecting and storing the input data for the calculation and statistical processing of indicators, as well as a way of exchanging data and facilitating their mutual compatibility. It particularly emphasizes the need for strengthening the capacities necessary for the improvement of statistical programs to meet the needs of reporting by using indicators of sustainable development from the UN list.
The process of drafting NSSD untiluntil 2030 involved the work of an expert team and the participatory process. The participatory process was comprised of the following:
The process of drafting NSSD untiluntil 2030 involved the following consultative meetings with the interested public:
The Draft NSSD, which was analyzed by the National Council for Sustainable Development and Climate Change at the 29th session, and confirmed by the Government of Montenegro at its session of 28 December 2015, incorporated the comments and suggestions that have been presented in writing by members of the working groups of the National Council, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (agriculture), the Ministry of Economy (energy), MSDT (tourism and civil works), and MONSTAT.
Following the recommendations of the working groups of the National Council, and the opinions of members of the National Council presented at the 29th session, during the preparation of the NSSD Proposal, there were seven consultation meetings organized in the period from 15 to 18 February with representatives of the relevant entities for each of the thematic areas of the NSSD (natural resources, human and social resources, economic resources, monitoring the implementation of the NSSD, financing for sustainable development). The expert team for drafting the NSSD until 2030 and the Division for Sustainable Development and Integrated coastal zone management within the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism held the following consultative meetings:
In the consultation process a lot of interest in the Draft NSSD until 2030 was expressed, and this resulted in a large number of suggestions and proposals relevant to the improvement of the NSSD. In addition to the consultative meetings, suggestions have also been submitted in writing, using the form that was prepared for this purpose by the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism. A report from all the consultative meetings contains an overview of the submitted suggestions and the opinion of the NSSD expert team in terms of their integration into the Proposal of the NSSD until 2030. All proposals that were not in conflict with the goals and objectives of sustainable development were accepted, thus, it can be concluded that the Proposal of NSSD until 2030 reflects a high degree of consensus of the relevant entities in relation to the strategic objectives and measures for sustainable development of Montenegro by 2030. Report from the consultative meetings with the presented comments and suggestions, as well as the views of the expert team for the development of the NSSD until 2030 is available in the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism.
In preparation of materials for consideration by the Government of Montenegro, the Proposal of NSSD until 2030 was submitted for validation to all ministries that are recognized as responsible institutions for implementations of activities defined by NSSD until 2030.
An integral part of the consultation process were the meetings of the permanent working groups of the National Council for Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took place on 6 June 2016. Members of the working groups expressed their support for the Proposal of NSSD until 2030 and assessed that its implementation will require the full commitment of all stakeholders whose tasks are set out in the NSSD Action Plan, as well as strong political support in order to eliminate unsustainable development trends. The minutes of the meeting, with the opinion of the working groups, is provided in the annex to this summary.
The public consultations process was organized in accordance with the Program of public consultations which is aligned with the Article 7 and Article 9 of the Regulation on the procedure and manner of conducting public debate in preparing laws. Program was approved by the Government of Montenegro at its session of 28 December 2015, when the Draft NSSD until 2030 was approved. The process of public consultations was initiated through the publication of notice and the Draft NSSD until 2030 on the website of the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism and e-government portal. In accordance with Article 11 of the Regulation on the procedure and manner of conducting public debate in preparing legislation, and taking into account the comprehensiveness of the NSSD, the debate on the Draft NSSD lasted 60 days from publication of the call, in the period from 28 February to 22 April 2016. Public Hearing was preceded by a consultative part of the participatory process that was organized in the period from 15 to 18 February 2016, as specified within the preceding paragraph 4 of this summary. After adjustment of the Draft NSSD based on the suggestions received in the consultative process, the second part of the participatory process was conducted, through the organization of round tables in the context of public consultations:
In relation to the target groups of participants in the public debate, as defined in the Public Consultations Program, the Union of Municipalities and the Partnership Council for Regional Development did not confirm their interest in participating in the organization of special panel discussions (a round table in cooperation with the Partnership Council was proposed considering that it is composed of representatives of public administration, local governments, as well as foreign investors). Representatives of local governments took an active part in the framework of the aforementioned round tables.
Division for Sustainable Development and Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism organized a round table in cooperation with CEED Consulting Ltd. and local non-governmental organizations that have helped to promote NSSD until 2030 and to ensure such a wide response of the stakeholders in the context of the public consultations.
Report from the public consultations that contains remarks and suggestions and the views of the expert team for the development of the NSSD is available in the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism. All comments and suggestions were observed and to the extent possible integrated into the Proposal of NSSD until 2030. In this way the NSSD Proposal represents an expression of needs not only of the Government and national institutions, but also of the widest range of stakeholders, from local self-governments, NGO’s, academia and the business sector.
The National Strategy for Sustainable Development until 2030 is based on documents that were created in the context of monitoring implementation of the 2007 NSSD, on all relevant sectoral documents, the relevant documents in the UN, regional and EU context. Information about key sources for the preparation of the NSSD until 2030 is given in paragraphs 2.1 and 3.2.3, while the overall presentation of sources is listed in the Bibliography, Annex to the NSSD until 2030.
Development of ownership over the sustainable development goals started within the consultative process “Montenegro we want”, within the post-2015 consultations. This process, supported by the UN, was part of a global discussion through which people from all over the world have been invited to help Member States to shape the future development agenda that will build on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) after their target date at the end of 2015. In order to involve the people of Montenegro and give them the opportunity to describe “what kind of Montenegro and what kind of world they want to live in”, the UN system in Montenegro, in cooperation with Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism and Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integrations, has created a broad platform for communication with the purpose of collecting people’s ideas, and hence helping world leaders create a new global development agenda after 2015. The consultations on Post 2015 development agenda in Montenegro was carried out in two phases (2013 and 2014): Phase 1 was organized between December 2012 and April 2013 and Phase 2 between May and September 2014.
Development of ownership over the Sustainable Development Goals continued in the context of Montenegro's participation in the Open Working Group for SDGs, when the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism organized comprehensive inter-ministerial consultations, relying on mechanisms of the National Council for Sustainable Development and Climate Changes. Inter-ministerial consultations within the working groups of the National Council and the Coordinating Body for Sustainable Development enabled defining national positions within the intergovernmental negotiations on SDGs based on the inputs from the relevant institutions. At the same time, Coordinating body was the key coordinating mechanism for the involvement of relevant national stakeholders in monitoring the implementation of the 2007 NSSD.
The consultation process continued during the phase of drafting the NSSD, following the methodology presented in sections 2.4 and 2.5, and it enabled participation of all the relevant stakeholders in all phases of drafting of the new NSSD until 2030. In this way, all relevant stakeholders: ministries, expert institutions, and institutions in the public sector, local self-governments, the parliament, the academia, the civil society organizations and the business community took an active part in the development of NSSD until 2030, which is focused on the SDGs and the relevant set of sustainable development tasks.
The aim of the first phase of consultations "Montenegro We Want" was to obtain the views of Montenegrin citizens on development challenges they face, ideas and visions and especially ideas on how to overcome identified problems which would lead to a better life for themselves and their families. The process was particularly focused on the consultations in order to contribute to the creation of a development plan for the period after 2015, that is, to the definition of the goals of sustainable development. This phase included over 8,000 people in Montenegro, or 1.3% of the total population. Special attention was given to the inclusion of marginalized groups, including the poor, the young and the elderly, women, people living in remote or isolated communities, persons with disabilities, etc.
Eight most important issues were identified around which priorities for the future should be set: the economy, unemployment, income and equal regional development; fighting crime, corruption and nepotism; health; equality; the environment; building infrastructure; education and values.
In the second phase, after the eight most important issues were identified, specific questions were tailored for the purpose of gaining more in-depth understanding of people’s priorities within these identified themes. These questions were then asked both to specialists/experts and again to the citizens. The objective was two-fold: to gain more specific understanding of the priorities that were chosen by the representative sample of people in the first round of consultations and to consult as many people as possible on these eight issues.
Findings of this consultative process were used as the platform for development of the National Strategy for Sustainable Development of Montenegro as well as inputs within Montenegro’s participation in the work of Open Working Group for SDGs.
This report, which provides an overview of translation of the UN Agenda for sustainable development into the new NSSD until 2030, will be presented at the HLPF session, on 19 July 2016. At the national level, the document will be presented to the stakeholders in September 2016 by the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism in cooperation with the United Nations Development Program, in the context of promoting new policies for sustainable development of Montenegro by 2030. Besides, the report will also be submitted, for information, to the National Council for Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Integrated Coastal Zone Management and its working groups, as a body that integrates representatives of all stakeholder groups at the national and local level of action.
As explained in paragraph 2.3, NSSD until 2030 represents a strategic framework for translating global goals and indicators of sustainable development in the national context. Priority topics, strategic goals and targets of sustainable development until 2030 represent at the same time the response of Montenegro to the challenges and responsibilities related to the implementation of the UN Agenda for Sustainable Development until 2030. A coherent set of measures and sub-measures in NSSD until 2030 sets the platform for translating global targets and indicators of sustainable development in the national framework, in order to link, to the extent possible, the monitoring of progress in the implementation of the NSSD Action Plan until2030, with the UN Agenda for Sustainable Development until 2030. The complexity of global sustainable development goals and the high number of associated targets and indicators resulted in the need for a comprehensive analysis of a complex institutional system in the country, in order to introduce a stable and functional system of monitoring and reporting on the implementation of sustainable development policies in the long run.
The strategic goals and measures of sustainable development of Montenegro until 2030 are defined taking into account national circumstances as well as and national commitments in the context of implementation of the UN Agenda 2030. In order to define the strategic goals and measures in response to the key issues in the management and use of human, social, natural and economic resources, as well as in the governance for sustainable development, targets defined by the UN agenda 2030 were analyzed in terms of types of obligations generated for the responsible entities at the national level and it was assessed whether these are obligations which have been identified in the context of the analysis of problems in national development (which was conducted in the manner explained in the NSSD methodology). The analysis showed a high degree of compatibility of the responses to be provided in the national context in order to overcome the unsustainable patterns of development and harmonization of national development with the requirements of the UN Agenda 2030. Specificities of the sustainable development targets in the national circumstances are recognized by defining additional measures and sub-measures, or the measures that have been defined as responses to the problems of sustainable development of Montenegro in the previous period, identified using the DPSI method, were upgraded by expanding their scope in a way to connect them with the related tasks from the Agenda for sustainable development.
Summary of methodological approaches for translating the UN sustainable development goals and targets into the national context through the NSSD is given in Table 3-1, which provides an overview of the goals and targets in the NSSD priority areas in which these UN goals are recognized as relevant. Namely, out of 169 targets, structured in 17 sustainable development goals, 167 have been translated into measures defined in the action plan in accordance with national circumstances and future needs. Two targets are not relevant for Montenegro: 9a - facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states and 9c - significantly increase access to information and communication technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to internet in the least developed countries by 2020. The last column indicates whether in the context of a specific sustainable development goals there is a target that is not relevant in the context of Montenegro. It is important to emphasize that a large number of 167 translated targets are recognized as relevant for several priority areas of the NSSD, confirming the universal nature and the cross-sectoral character of this Strategy and stressing the need for functional integration of all dimensions of sustainability of national development. Of all the relevant targets, 95 have been identified in one priority area, 49 in two, 17 in three, 4 in the four priority areas, and 1 was identified in five priority areas of the NSSD.
All of the aforementioned confirms that this strategy sets the basis for monitoring of implementation of the UN Agenda for sustainable development until 2030 in the national context.
In the 1992 Constitution, and the 2007 Constitution, Montenegro has opted for development based on the principles of sustainable development. Constitutional commitment was followed by a series of activities aimed at building the institutional and policy framework for sustainable development. In drafting the NSSD, a large number of regulations governing the issues relevant for sustainable development of Montenegro were analyzed. Findings in this respect are contained in the Analysis of institutional and legislative framework relevant for sustainable development of Montenegro, and a brief overview of the key deficiencies is given in Table 3-2.
At this stage, harmonization of national policy for sustainable development with the UN Agenda for sustainable development until 2030 respectively sustainable development goals and targets was carried out through their integration into the NSSD until 2030. As stated, in the period until 2018 sectoral policies will be harmonized with the NSSD and the Agenda for sustainable development by 2030. Depending on the assessment of the incompatibility of sectoral policies, it will be possible to engage in amending the existing regulations to eliminate their non-compliance with the Un Agenda 2030 and the strategic goals and policy measures for sustainable development of Montenegro.
Table 3-2: Summary of problems in the implementation of the legislative framework important for sustainable development
By participating in international dialogue on the sustainable development goals and UN Agenda for sustainable development until 2030 Montenegro expressed its full commitment to the priority issues of sustainable development, such as: poverty reduction, inclusive economy, the rule of law, good governance, the introduction of green economy, strengthening the efficiency of use natural resources, climate change, coastal areas, conservation of sensitive ecosystems, sustainable production and consumption, gender equality and providing inclusive and knowledge-based growth. In addition to the global context, the priority is to create conditions for the implementation of key determinants of sustainable development enshrined in the relevant EU policies, primarily the Europe 2020 Strategy and the Roadmap to a resource- efficient Europe.
188.8.131.52 Preparation of the 2016 Report on Millennium Development Goals in Montenegro
Practical implementation and measurable results of deviation from unsustainable development trends still represent a challenge and must constitute the backbone of policy of sustainable development. In the past, the Millennium Development Goals represented the means of measuring and monitoring progress in the implementation of some key tasks relevant to sustainable development both at national and international level. The 2016 Report on Millennium Development Goals in Montenegro has been prepared as the last in a sequence of annual and periodic reports on implementation of Millennium goals (MDGs) in the country with the aim to assess whether national MDGs have been achieved and to analyze trends during the entire implementation period. Moreover, the Report was prepared in order to identify the key successes, constraints and lessons learnt in this process. The intent was to help maintain achievements and enabling factors while moving to the implementation of sustainable development goals (SDGs) i.e. to indicate possible ways of overcoming the challenges that have slowed down progress with certain MDGs.
National milestones around the MDGs and transition to SDGs
Millennium Development Goals have been adapted to the national context in 2010 and the following localized goals have been defined, together with appropriate tasks, targets and indicators:
While adapting global goals to the national context, particular attention was paid that selected targets and indicators are reflective of the achieved level of development in the country as well as of priorities and aspirations for the future.
National MDGs have been considered and taken into account when adopting regulations, policies, plans and programs. This has resulted in a high level of MDGs integration in the sectoral policies. The so far MDG reports showed these goals were compatible with the national framework strategic documents as well as with priorities of the process of acceding to the European Union (EU). In addition, it was assessed that MDGs have acted as an impetus for the implementation of adopted policies and strategies. In certain sectors (such as for example education and health), MDGs have had a significant impact in focusing attention on particularly vulnerable population groups.
In the coming period, it is expected that national development agenda will be significantly affected by the SDGs as defined in the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Agenda is compatible with the Millennium Declaration and it represents a basis for continued efforts towards unfulfilled MDG aspirations. At the same time, the 2030 Agenda widens the set of development issues covered by the Millennium Declaration to include emerging issues and new priorities such as preservation of oceans and seas, sustainable agriculture, climate change, urban development, inclusive societies and institutions, and others. It is highly relevant for Montenegro and the country has committed to implement it.
Montenegro is one of the first countries in the world that has started the process of integration of the 2030 Agenda goals into the national frameworks. This is done through the National Sustainable Development Strategy until 2030 (NSDS), the Proposal of which was finalized in June 2016. In preparing the NSDS, global SDGs have been considered in detail and transposed into the national sustainable goals in line with national priorities. NSDS goals by 2030 encompass all the development issues that were addressed under Millennium goals. The Strategy also envisages continued monitoring of all the MDG indicators. Continuity in addressing the MDG topics has been thus ensured at the level of strategic planning, and an opportunity created to complete the MDGs tasks where targets had not been achieved by the end of 2015 through the NSDS implementation.
A significant increase in the Human Development Index (HDI) and mild economic recovery after two cycles of recession (in 2009 and 2012) can be singled out as the main development achievements in the period since nationalized MDGs have been adopted in Montenegro. With HDI of 0.802 in 2014, Montenegro belongs to a group of countries with very high HDI and is ranked as 49th country in the world. Despite the GDP growth recorded in the past few years, the country is still faced with several macroeconomic challenges that need to be overcome in order to secure stable and sustainable growth. Accession to the EU is a national priority: accession negotiations were opened in June 2012 and have had major impact on the processes in the country.
Progress in achieving MDGs was not as impressive as the progress in human development shown by HDI rise. Adequate responses are needed for the cases of economic, social and environmental unsustainability (such as high unemployment, low competitiveness of the economy, budgetary deficit, poverty and inequality, excessive pressures on natural resources or environmental components, and others). If these responses are not provided, the so far achievements could be undermined and long term sustainability questioned. These threats are exacerbated by the fact that Montenegro is a small system that is, as evidenced through MDG implementation monitoring, highly susceptible to external as well as to internal pressures. Ensuring equal rights for all, fight against corruption and organized crime, development of sustainable economic activities, development of effective and responsible institutions and capacity building at all levels can be singled out as the main challenges for the future.
MDG implementation in Montenegro: status in 2015, key successes and constraints
Out of national MDGs for which quantified targets have been set, one goal (MDG 5) has been fully achieved, two have been partially achieved (MDGs 4 and 6), for one goal (MDG 2) indicator values recorded in 2015 came very close to targets, while three goals (MDGs 1, 3 and 7) have not been achieved. Satisfactory progress has been recorded for MDG 8.
Nevertheless, achievements in the MDGs implementation process in Montenegro are highly significant. First of all, the goal on maintaining and improving reproductive maternal health (MDG 5) has been fully achieved. As for MDG 4, tasks 1 and 3 have been fulfilled: infant and children (up to 5 years of age) mortality rates have been significantly reduced and the same applies to mortality rates for children 0 to 4 years of age due to accidents. Under MDG 6, task on reducing incidence of and mortality due to tuberculosis (task 2) has been fulfilled. For the task 3 – reducing mortality due to chronic non-communicable disease – results were semi-successful: target was reached for cardiovascular diseases but not for malign tumors.
Even though targets were not actually reached, an important success was accomplished for MDG 2 where positive trends were recorded and where figures on coverage of preschool and elementary education (tasks 1 and 2) came very close to targeted values. It is estimated that task 3 on reaching low illiteracy rate for persons older than 10 was fulfilled.
MDG 7 was not entirely achieved, but significant progress was made for a number of indicators. Targets have been reached for 4 out of 11 indicators. Targets were reached or exceeded for terrestrial protected areas and areas under forests, reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and share of renewable energy in total consumption of energy (task 1). According to available data, energy intensity in 2015 was very close to intended level. Moreover, good progress was made for water supply and wastewater collection and treatment indicators (task 2) despite the fact that relevant targets were not reached.
Targets were not reached for either of the two tasks defined to contribute to improvements in gender equality, however the achieved progress is also encouraging in these areas – for economic empowerment of women as well as for their participation in political affairs.
Finally, the weakest progress was made for MDG 1 where none of the four tasks defined in order to reduce poverty, inequality and unemployment were fulfilled. This is a reason for concern and a signal that related set of development issues must be paid much more attention in the coming period.
The following can be singled out as the main distinct successes in implementing the MDGs:
Despite significant successes, poverty and employment indicators are largely behind the targets and this is rather worrying. Also worrying is failing to reach gender equality targets as well as slow progress with some health (primarily HIV infections and malign tumors) and environmental sustainability indicators (marine protected areas, air quality and rate of anthropogenic pressures on surface waters). Finally, important reasons for concern are inequalities that exist for some indicators. Coverage of vulnerable population groups with education is, for example, much lower than for general population. At the same time, there are no comprehensive and continuous data on inequalities in education (or in other areas).
The following can be singled out as some of the key factors that enabled successes:
On the other hand, the following can be singled out as the main constraints that have slowed down progress and caused delays in certain areas:
In addition to tasks and goals that have not been achieved by the end of the implementation period i.e. in addition to unfinished MDGs business, emerging priorities identified in the course of MDG implementation also require attention in the coming period. Emerging priorities first of all refer to improvements in the quality of education, climate change, further ecosystem protection, increasing competitiveness of the national economy, development of responsible and efficient institutions and similar. NSDS implementation represents an excellent opportunity to continue with necessary activities, accelerate progress and capitalize on the efforts invested so far that have not yielded planned results.
Some of the main lessons that can be deduced based on experiences with MDGs implementation and are relevant for NSDS include:
184.108.40.206 Transition from SDGs to MDGs
The final report will provide a link in terms of transition from monitoring the Millennium Development Goals to the indicators of sustainable development established in March of this year. Seventeen recently adopted comprehensive, universally applicable and, by their nature transformative sustainable development goals within the Agenda for sustainable development until 2030 replaced the Millennium Development Goals, thus making a positive step forward in terms of ensuring comprehensive monitoring of all aspects of sustainable development of a society. They are oriented toward the achievement of concrete and measurable outcomes, concise and universally applicable to all countries, taking into account different national circumstances, capacities and levels of development, and respecting the specificities of the national development context. Establishment of an adequate system for monitoring the sustainable development goals in the national context will represent a challenge for the existing system of public administration. This requires a reform and significant strengthening of the existing institutional framework, governance and financing for sustainable development. In order to provide functional cross-sector cooperation and improve the efficiency of the governance system for sustainable development it is necessary to horizontally strengthen the institutional capacities to implement national sustainable development policy, which is focused on the goals and indicators of sustainable development, and related sectoral policies.
NSSD until 2030 is a key national strategy that defines the structure of the system for monitoring the implementation of sustainable development policy of Montenegro in the period until 2030. The backbone of the monitoring and reporting system will be monitoring of progress in implementing the 17 SDGs and accompanying 169 targets defined in the UN Agenda for sustainable development until 2030 and integrated into the strategic goals and measures of NSSD. The NSSD established a platform for translating SDGs and sustainable development indicators into the national context, in order to link them, already in the initial stage and to the extent possible, to the monitoring of progress in the implementation of measures defined in the NSSD Action Plan until 2030. The set of 241 supporting sustainable development indicators published by the Statistical Commission of the UN in March 2016, should enable the collection and processing of data required for measuring progress in achieving the objectives of sustainable development and monitoring of the related trends.
The complexity of the UN sustainable development goals and the number of related indicators of sustainable development, have created the need for a comprehensive analysis of the complex national institutional system in order to establish a long-term stable and functional system of monitoring the implementation of sustainable development policy. Recommendations of the Second Committee of the UN General Assembly emphasize the need to provide support to countries in order to define and establish national systems for monitoring the implementation of UN goals, targets and indicators of sustainable development in the upcoming two-year period. This is especially important because for now, UN member states do not have enough capacity for rapid transposition of all 17 goals into the national context. Therefore, it is expected that they will gradually take over the sustainable development goals in processes that require horizontal and vertical coordination of institutions with responsibilities in the framework of governance for sustainable development. In terms of transposing the objectives of sustainable development into the national framework there are several key issues identified, including the following: how goals affect the planning of national development and selection of priorities for implementation, in which national policies and how they should be integrated, and the like. Implementation of the sustainable development goals is also compatible with the process of fulfilling the obligations in the implementation of a number of multilateral UN agreements. This indicates the essentially important role of governments of the UN member states in facilitating successful implementation of the sustainable development goals and the need for careful planning and establishment of a national system for monitoring and evaluation of the sustainable development goals in the upcoming two-year period.
UN goals and indicators of sustainable development translated into Montenegrin context will allow monitoring of national trends and establishment of a reporting system significant both in the national and in the international context, especially to the UN Statistical Commission and the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Transition of the existing national institutional framework into the organizational model that can efficiently implement the UN sustainable development goals requires a consistent approach to the reform of the governance for sustainable development. Namely, it is necessary to achieve an integrated functioning in accordance with the measures defined in the strategic goal - implementation of reform of the institutional organization of the system of governance for sustainable development. It is a long-lasting process that implies the application of complex accountability mechanisms and the establishment of partnerships, primarily with the UN system.The United Nations Agenda for sustainable development until 2030 in paragraph 5 points to the need to take into account different national realities,, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities, and in paragraph 55 that the objectives of sustainable development targets are aspirational and global, and that national governments set their own national targets guided by the global level of ambition but taking into account national circumstances, that is, they decide on how these global aspirations and goals should be introduced into national planning processes, policies and strategies. In relation to this, besides NSSD other key national policies must also be aligned with the requirements of the Agenda for sustainable development by 2030. Therefore, in addition to translating UN goals and objectives of sustainable development into the sustainable development policy, the NSSD until 2030 establishes the basis for their incorporation into other relevant national policies, plans and programs. For that reason, in the upcoming two-year period it is necessary to carry out a detailed analysis of the national institutional system in order to confirm and elaborate mechanisms and measures set out in this strategy in the context of establishment of an operational system for translation of the UN objectives and indicators of sustainable development into the national system of monitoring and reporting and harmonization of existing national strategies, programs and plans with the goals and objectives of sustainable development.
Analysis of the current situation shows that in Montenegro, out of 241 indicators of sustainable development, 27 are fully monitored (11.2% of the total number), and additional 35 are partially monitored (which makes an additional 14.5% of the total). It is necessary for official and administrative producers of statistics to incorporate in their work programs, by 2018, additional 40 indicators of sustainable development from the UN list, which would mean that reporting in Montenegro covers 42.3% of the total number of indicators. In the period from 2018 to 2020, it is necessary to introduce additional 19 indicators of sustainable development from the UN list, to ensure monitoring of 50.2% of the total number of indicators in Montenegro. In the period from 2020 to 2022, it is necessary to introduce additional 36 indicators, to ensure monitoring of 65.1% of the total number of indicators from the UN list. The adoption of additional 24 indicators in the period 2020-2024 would create the prerequisites to monitor 75.1% of the indicators from the UN list. The establishment of this complex system of monitoring the implementation of sustainable development and the UN agenda for sustainable development by 2030 is not possible without a satisfactory level of development of human resources needed to strengthen the process of data collection and processing. This will require adjustment of the current institutional organization and work programs of official and administrative statistics producers, which must be accompanied by an increase in the number of employees and budget allocations.
This strategy introduces into the reporting system on the implementation of sustainable development policy the available national indicators (in groups as shown in Chapter 7) for which it is considered that they may be classified as indicators for monitoring sustainable development of Montenegro. A special value of reporting in the upcoming period will be added by the introduction of selected complex indicators for cumulative monitoring of the sustainability trends: ecological footprint (EF), the Human Development Index (HDI), Gender inequality Index (GII), Domestic material consumption (DMC), resource productivity (RP), land consumption (LC), the social progress Index (SPI), the genuine progress indicator (GPI), the environmental democracy Index (EDI) and the environmental performance Index (EPI), given that the they were specifically developed or proposed for introduction in order to improve national policies for sustainable development by 2030.
NSSD until 2030 also defines measures in the area of governance that are necessary in order to establish an information system and databases as key instruments for monitoring the implementation of the goals and indicators of sustainable development. The exchange of data between different data producers and their mutual compatibility represent the basis for smooth functioning of the information system for monitoring the implementation of sustainable development policy. In addition to mutual connectivity and compatibility, it is extremely important to improve the public availability of data. Structure of an optimal monitoring, evaluation and reporting system has been defined in relation to the implementation of the goals and indicators of sustainable development.
A separate set of governance measures in the NSSD refers to the provision of necessary financial resources for the implementation of research and analysis needed in order to collect and process data in the use of sustainable development indicators, particularly in the context of a widening the coverage of statistical programs to be implemented by the official and administrative data producers, primarily the Statistical Office – MONSTAT.
Montenegro has strengthened the strategic medium-term framework through the adoption of horizontal strategic documents, which include a number of horizontally mutually inter-related development issues. The longest development horizon is given in the National Sustainable Development Strategy, the National Strategy on Climate Change until 2030, the Spatial Plan of Montenegro, as well as the Program of Economic Reforms, Macro-Fiscal Guidelines (which will turn into a fiscal strategy), and the important financial sustainability strategies, such as the medium-term public debt management strategy. In particular, a comprehensive strategy is the medium-term program of accession to the European Union, which is reviewed annually. Finally, definition of guidelines for long-term development is also contained in the Program of Structural Reforms by 2020, adopted in April 2016, which promotes six areas of structural reforms: reforms for growth and development of entrepreneurship, SMEs and investments, reform of the labor market, social protection and pension system, reform of the education system, health system reform, public financial governance reforms and administrative reforms.
The strategic medium-term framework is also strengthened through the adoption of numerous sectoral development strategies that regulate issues relevant for sustainable development of Montenegro and focus on the following:
Despite the definition of development priorities through the aforementioned overview of strategies, in most cases there are no permanent coordination structures to monitor the implementation of strategic documents, and no secured sources of finance by type of activity and age. In addition to the lack of coherence of sectoral policies, Montenegro's economic sectors are characterized by inefficient use of natural and human resources, particularly energy and water, with a low level of technological development and recycling of generated waste. In addition to the negative environmental impact, this situation also has a negative impact on the competitiveness of the economy and opens considerable space for the introduction of policies and measures of resource efficiency. Strategies in the economic sectors identify the sustainable management of resources in the context of the general goals, but fail to fully develop measures and commit themselves to the adequate practical use of these approaches. The situation is similar in physical planning, where the integration of the requirements of sustainable development exists at the level of guidelines and goals, but is often missing in the definition of sustainable use of space.
There are still numerous weaknesses in the environmental management systems that have been identified in the NSSD from 2007, and most notably those relating to: enabling full harmonization of national legislation with the EU acquis, more effective application of regulations, the development of administrative and the overall institutional capacities for management of the environment and natural resources, and enabling for more efficient horizontal and vertical institutional coordination, and especially overcoming inadequate environmental financing from both public and private sources, and the still expressed low level of integration of environmental concerns into sectoral policies.
For that reason the obligation was defined to harmonize legislation and sectoral policies with the goals and measures of the National Strategy for sustainable development by 2030. Although the global goals and tasks are transposed for the most part into the national NSSD framework by 2030, the NSSD Action Plan established the obligation of transposing them through harmonization of key national policies, programs and plans with the NSSD until 2030 and the UN Agenda for sustainable development by 2030. Therefore, in accordance with the identified problems and the related measures that are defined in the NSSD until 2017, it is necessary to determine the relevance of global targets of sustainable development in terms of their integration into sectoral policies, programs and plans. Besides, by 2017 it is also necessary to identify shortcomings in the horizontal and vertical levels of government in terms of transposition of goals and indicators of sustainable development into the national context, all with the aim to complete by 2018 harmonization of the existing relevant strategies, programs and plans with the UN Agenda for sustainable development by 2030. In doing so, it is necessary to strengthen the orientation towards a green economy and related approaches and instruments of sustainable development (sustainable production and consumption, sustainable use of resources, reliance on the information society, social responsibility, integrating climate change into sectoral strategies, etc.), in order for the stable and sustainable economic growth to remain the engine of sustainable development of Montenegro in the period until 2030.
As mentioned in 3.2.2 integration of goals and targets of sustainable development into sustainable development policy of Montenegro was done in NSSD until 2030. It is the only new strategic document adopted by the Government of Montenegro with the aim to facilitate the translation of goals and targets of sustainable development. In addition to NSSD until 2030 there will be no supplementary strategic documents, but the NSSD Action Plan stipulates the obligation of the translation of goals and targets through the harmonization of key national policies, programs and plans with the NSSD until 2030 and the UN Agenda for sustainable development until 2030 in the period of 2017-2019.
Through the Forum of environmental NGOs, the civil sector has actively participated in the work of the National Council discussing the most important issues dealt with by the National Council, presenting views and proposals, as well as directly participating in the work of the National Council. An important impetus to the improvement of relations between the governmental and non-governmental sector was signing a Memorandum of Understanding between the then Ministry of Spatial Planning and Environment with environmental NGOs and election of a representative of non-governmental sector for the deputy president of the National Council for Sustainable Development in April 2011.
Of the 23municipalities in Montenegro, only three municipalities - Podgorica, Bijelo Polje and Mojkovac have established organizational units in their institutional system - Secretariats for spatial and urban planning and sustainable development, with main responsibilities to implement sustainable development policies. In April 2011, the Municipality of Danilovgrad has established its own local Council for Sustainable Development and adopted the Sustainable Development Strategy with Action Plan for the period until 2018.
When it comes to cooperation and partnership between social actors based on the principles of transparency and participation NSSD until 2030 defines activities that aim at significant advancement of reaching sustainability of development by implementing the NSSD until 2030 measures with certain transposition of SDGs and related targets. The forthcoming period should see strengthening of capacity at local level by establishing councils for sustainable development and the alignment of strategic plans for development of municipalities with the requirements of the NSSD, i.e. the adoption of strategic local umbrella documents of sustainable development, which must reconcile all the other individual plans and programs. Institutional framework and integrated planning should also be improved, and the capacities (human, technical and financial) of public sector (especially in local government and institutions) should be raised to a much higher level. Capacity development is necessary in academic and research institutions.
The role of the civil sector should be strengthened by providing substantial participation in the process of policy-making and decision-making. The private sector, despite certain positive examples in recent years, remains under-involved in achieving the goals of sustainability, so that there is a need to strengthen its role in the process of greening the economy through realization of projects and programs within the green entrepreneurship, sustainable consumption and production and corporate social responsibility, as well as through the development of public-private partnerships.
NSSD until 2030 recognizes the importance of multiple partnerships in implementing the policy of sustainable development of Montenegro and the implementation of SDGs and targets of sustainable development through the implementation of the NSSD Action Plan. The need for strengthening partnerships at three levels of action - national partnerships with international entities, partnerships between relevant national entities and partnerships for financing for sustainable development, is present in all strategic objectives and measures of NSSD, and occupies a central place in the following strategic objectives of the NSSD:
220.127.116.11 The approach of key stakeholders to sustainability of development
In order to strengthen the social capital, it is necessary to establish adequate relations between key social stakeholders s that will be directed towards building a cohesive sustainable development. From the aspect of sustainable development, the more important social stakeholders are public administration institutions (including educational institutions), civil society (especially non-governmental organizations and informal groups of citizens), business communities and families. The degree of sustainability of a community depends on the way in which these actors organize their social life. All these actors bear significant responsibility for the process of socialization of citizens in accordance with the global goals of sustainable development which Montenegro has embraced. Educational institutions that do not "produce" a citizen capable and ready to get involved in solving social problems, based on the principles of sustainable development cannot meet the needs of development in the XXI century, where education is not understood only as a transfer of knowledge, but also as a transfer of values. The same applies to civil society organizations that should be prepared to participate actively not only in articulating political interests of citizens but also in their mobilization in accordance with the goals of sustainable development. Discrimination on any grounds (gender, ethnic, religious, based on sexual identity or other personal or group characteristics) destroys the cohesion of society and by creating an internal conflict prevents all individuals within the society from realizing their full potential under the circumstances that could lead to sustainable community development. In Montenegro, the family has suffered numerous blows in the transition period, from the normative-value transformation of a classic family towards acceptance of alternative forms of cohabitation, to economic pressures that have redefined gender roles, but also created some tension that caused an increased level of violent behavior and destruction of family as a key unit of society. Sustainable development should be an opportunity to reconstruct the policies that will empower individuals in all their diversity (in terms of gender, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, age, etc.) and make them actors of change and equal partners in an effort to "promote an inclusive, equitable and sustainable development of society." 
In accordance with the principle of partnership, which is defined as one of five basic principles for achieving goals of sustainable development, all these actors need to be committed partners in the development of a sustainable society in Montenegro.
When it comes to cooperation and partnership among social stakeholders based on the principles of transparency and participation, there is a need and room for significant improvement of practice of achieving sustainability of development. Institutional framework and integrated planning should also be improved, and the capacities (human, technical and financial) of public sector (especially local government and institutions) need to be raised to a much higher level. Capacity development is essential in academic and research institutions. The role of the civil sector should be strengthened by providing its substantial participation in the policy-making and decision-making processes. The private sector, despite certain positive examples in recent years, remains under-involved in achieving the goals of sustainability, so that there is a need to strengthen its role in the process of greening the economy through realization of projects and programs within the green entrepreneurship, sustainable consumption and production and corporate social responsibility, as well as and through the development of public-private partnerships.
By adopting the Agenda for Sustainable Development, world leaders have pledged to build the world of universal respect for human rights and human dignity, the rule of law, justice, equality and the world without discrimination, in which there is a full respect for the race, ethnicity and cultural diversity, as well as the world of equal opportunities, which allows full realization of human potential and contributes to the common prosperity, the world that invests in children and in which every child grows in an environment free of violence and exploitation, in which every woman and girl enjoys full gender equality and in which all of the legal, social and economic barriers to their empowerment are removed,in which children have access to justice when their rights are violated or when they are denied the exercise of the right, the world that is just, equitable, tolerant, open and socially inclusive and meets the needs of the most vulnerable.
Starting from such a roadmap, in relation to the weaknesses and problems identified in the management of social resources, the NSSD until 2030 recognizes "the approach of key stakeholders towards sustainability development" as an area for priority action. Furthermore, in order to provide the necessary partnership and cooperation of all stakeholders in their joint creation of the world that develops in a sustainable way, NSSD defines a strategic objective "To stimulate an active approach of key stakeholders to sustainability of development" to be achieved through the implementation of the following measures:
18.104.22.168 Partnership between the Government of Montenegro and the United Nations Development Program
The reform of the system of governance for sustainable development must lead to elimination of the evident lack of human resource capacities in public administration. A particularly important aspect in strengthening the system of governance for sustainable development is to link sustainable development policy with the application of the relevant scientific knowledge. However, despite the expressed commitment in this context, there has not been established an institutional form for directing technical and scientific knowledge and skills for the needs of implementation of sustainable development policies. Completing the transformation of the Centre for Sustainable Development, which functions as a program jointly implemented by the Office of the United Nations Development Program in Montenegro (UNDP) and the Government of Montenegro based on the "close partnership" model, and successful establishment of its functions with regard to guiding the results of scientific research for the improvement of sustainable development policies and sectoral policies, can be an opportunity to strengthen informed decision-making based on scientific and technical knowledge, and to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the policy of sustainable development.
Harnessing technical and scientific knowledge and skills for carrying out sustainable development policy should support overcoming problems that are generated by insufficient existing implementation capacity of the sustainable development governance system. This emphasizes the importance of the decision of the Steering Committee of the Centre for Sustainable Development, adopted in April 2016, after a comprehensive consultation process, to continue its operation until 2020 in the form of a joint program implemented by the Government and UNDP on a close partnership model. This decision is in line with the Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Montenegro and UNDP to establish the Centre for Sustainable Development in December 2013. The program framework of the Centre will be aligned with the needs of the implementation of NSSD until 2030 and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, thus going beyond the current program of support to the public sector in the field of environmental sustainability and bridging the gap between the use of relevant scientific knowledge and implementation of sustainable development policy. Instead, there will be support for priority activities in all four groups of national resources: human, social, economic and natural, in line with the objectives and measures of NSSD until 2030 and possibilities for allocation of funds that will be available to UNDP, as well as those from the budget of Montenegro, particularly emphasizing the importance of activities aimed at the introduction of the green economy. In addition to the project part, an important component of the programming framework of the Centre for Sustainable Development will be related to the provision of expert assistance in terms of the effective introduction of relevant indicators of sustainable development into the national system of regular monitoring. By implementing such a defined program framework by 2020 the Center will build capacities that are prerequisite for a complete transformation into a national institution in 2021. The visibility of the Centre in the region of South East Europe will be continuously strengthened with the aim of encouraging high-quality partnerships and exchange of knowledge for sustainable development.
In order to achieve its programmatic framework through providing support to the National Council For Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Integrated Coastal Zone Management and the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism (i.e. the unit in the system of administration which will be responsible for implementing policies for sustainable development in the period after the reform of the governance system for sustainable development), and through the coordination mechanisms of the National Council and other departments and entities with their respective responsibilities for the implementation of NSSD until 2030, the Centre for Sustainable Development will have the following key roles:
These roles of the Centre for Sustainable Development will be performed using the instruments for: the development and implementation of projects, research and innovation for informed sustainable development policy based on professional knowledge. In order to establish its program framework by the end of 2016 and in the first half of 2017, the Center will apply for a license to carry out scientific research, and in cooperation with the members of the Steering Committee it will create protocols on: the joint management model of UNDP and the Government of Montenegro, reporting, communication and public presentation of the work of the Centre, partnerships and framework for funding (from the funds available to UNDP, as well as those from the budget of Montenegro). Based on these Protocols there will be prepared a Strategy for the medium-term operation of Centre until 2020 with a vision of a long-term integration into the national institutional system of governance for sustainable development, as well as with the related Study of the necessary capacitiy building of the Centre. Upon preparing and agreeing on the documents, amendments will be made to the Memorandum of Understanding in relation to establishment of the Centre for Sustainable Development signed by the Government of Montenegro and UNDP in December 2013.
Functioning of the Centre for Sustainable Development based on the model that was previously presented is a sub-measure within the NSSD measure "Strengthen professional and administrative level of implementation of sustainable development policies, SDG (16.6, 16.7, 16.8), SDG 17 (17.3, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8 , 17.9, 17.13, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16, 17.19), paragraphs 3, 5, 21, 39-41, 45-48,54-59, 60-91" defined in the context of achieving the strategic objective of NSSD until 2030 - Implement the reform of the institutional organization of the governance system for sustainable development.
22.214.171.124 Establishing a long-term sustainable system of financing for sustainable development
Financing for sustainable development is an integral part of all phases of the creation, adoption and implementation of the NSSD until 2030. Funding for a long-term sustainable development of the society is based on the existing developmental and financial framework of Montenegro and goals of the United Nations Agenda for sustainable development until 2030, including SDG 17"Improve the means to implement and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development". Strengthening partnerships represent the core of the strategic goal of NSSD "Establishing a long-term sustainable system of financing for sustainable development". Therefore, the key principles of financing for sustainable development include:
NSSD recognizes the importance of improved global partnership for sustainable development as a mean to strengthen international cooperation for the implementation of the United Nations Agenda for sustainable development until 2030. In addition to domestic private and public sources of financing for sustainable development of Montenegro, international public financial resources will play an important role in complementing the efforts of countries to mobilize domestic public resources, and international trade will be the engine of inclusive economic development and poverty reduction that must contribute to promoting sustainable development. In the context of international trade, particularly important will be strengthening partnerships through regional trade and interconnectivity, which will promote inclusive growth and sustainable development. Regional integration of Montenegro through CEFTA, bilateral trade arrangements and the Stabilization and Association Agreement with the EU will contribute to reducing barriers to trade in the region and lead to faster economic reforms. At the same time this enables companies, including micro, small and medium enterprises, to integrate into regional and global supply channels.
Proceeding from the above, the strategic goal of NSSD until 2030 "to establish a system of sustainable financing of environmental protection as a component of financing for sustainable development" recognizes the following priority measures which integrate the need to build partnerships at different levels:
It is also important to state that the strategic goal of NSSD pertaining to facilitation of the introduction of the green economy by mobilizing resources for financing sustainable development should be achieved by implementation of the measure 126.96.36.199 referring to the strengthening of public-private partnerships, SDG 17 (17.3, 17.7, 17:17).
One of the main obstacles to faster progress in achieving the goals of sustainable development in Montenegro is an unsatisfactory level of implementation of laws, policies and strategies. There is a big discrepancy between the obligations arising from the adopted regulations and policies and their implementation as a result of several factors (changes in habits and attitudes of the competent authorities, the absence of an adequate institutional framework, etc.). In addition, the level of harmonization among sectoral strategies is not always sufficient, and the degree of integration of the environment into economic/sectoral policies, despite some advances, is rather low. Problems also arise from an inadequate assessment and lack of financial resources needed for implementation, an underdeveloped system for monitoring and evaluation of progress, etc.
Despite repeatedly expressed political commitment to sustainable development of society and established institutional framework for the functioning of the sustainable development governance system, in Montenegro, as well as in the majority of UN member states, the integration of the issues such as poverty reduction, human rights and environmental protection, as well as other priority issues in the field of social development and sustainable management of natural, social and human resources into the framework of planning economic development are still the main challenges on the way towards achieving sustainable national development. However, compared to other forms of integration of the pillars of sustainable development, the integration of environmental issues and sustainable use of natural resources continues to significantly lag behind. Overview of national reports on the implementation of sustainable development policy recognizes that countries have not positioned priorities for sustainable development as key elements of economic growth and development, but instead expect from sustainable development not to interfere with economic growth, while preservation of the environment is still not perceived as a precondition for a long-term sustainable economic growth and development.
Problems of unsatisfactoryimplementation of priority programs and actions represent the core issue of the non-compliance of stated political commitment and results in the implementation of policies for sustainable development of Montenegro. There is an evident gap between commitments to sustainable development and implementation of policies and programs for sustainable development, and achievement of the challenges in terms of integration, inclusion and coherence. Screening of the success in the implementation of the five-year Action Plan of NSSD in the period 2007-2012 shows good results with a percentage of the implemented measures of 53%, where the field of environment, to a certain extent, lags behind the performances of the economy, and to a slightly less extent behind the sphere of social development. Although this result corresponds to the aggravating circumstances which society faced in the period of transition of the overall socio-economic environment, it can be concluded that continuing unsustainable development trends are still in place. Translation of principles and goals of sustainable development into effective enforceable actions based on the integration of economic, social and environmental pillars, and an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable economic growth, still generates many problems. Replacing the fragmented approach with inclusive processes that combine numerous entities of horizontal and vertical levels of the organization of the sustainable development governance system is crucial to the success of implementation of confirmed political will and functionality of good governance for sustainable development in Montenegro.
Therefore, the central issues of sustainable development in the period ahead of us are: strengthening a good governance, establishment and construction of a complex mechanism of accountability, and sustainable and intertwined valorization of national resources. The focal points of the development will be meeting individual needs, enabling active participation of all relevant social groups and building partnerships between different social structures. At the same time, the interests of citizens, businesses and the 'green' interests should be made compatible.
The linear dependence of economic development and utilization of natural resources, that is the growing anthropogenic pressures on the environment, characterize both the economies in South-Eastern Europe, and economic development observed in a wider global context. Despite the trend of economic recovery, the existing economic structure in Montenegro is not adapted to the demands of sustainable development, because it is still, to a large extent, based on polluting industries and unsustainable exploitation of natural resources. In addition, the attractiveness of Montenegro as a tourist destination has led to rapid urbanization, conversion of agricultural land into construction land and a severe pressure on the coastal area. Despite certain legal solutions, most of the decisions on the implementation of development projects are still based on purely economic effects, while ignoring the social component and the effects on the environment. Therefore, it is important for Montenegro, from the perspective of improving productivity and resource management, to adopt optimal scenario which envisages an absolute reduction of resource use by 20% compared to the average from 2005-2012. Its implementation will require further significant reforms to enable separation of the impact of resource use, economic activity and social well-being, and therefore the inversion in relation to environmental pollution.
As an umbrella and horizontal strategy that regulates long-term national development, NSSD strategic goals and measures were defined through a cross-sectoral review of the situation and needs, building upon the universal nature of SDGs. In this context, complex indicators considered essential for a comprehensive view of sustainable development of Montenegro were introduced. Improvement of results regarding selected indicators in the time horizon of the implementation of measures of NSSD until 2030 would be a clear signal that Montenegro is on the path of sustainable development, both as a part of the entire process and in the framework of individual thematic areas. Out of the ten indicators, six are already functioning in the framework of the implementation of the pilot projects carried out for the purpose of drafting NSSD until 2030, or within the program activities of the United Nations Development Program:
The following indicators will be taken into account in the process of NSSD monitoring until 2019: Social Progress Index (SPI), Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), Environmental Democracy Index (EDI), and Environmental Performance Index, (EPI).
Except from DMC and RP, which are on the UN list of sustainable development indicators (SDG 8.4.2 and SDG 12.2.2), the indicators above are not on the UN list. However, they were introduced to the NSSD until 2030 based on the positive experiences with their application within the EU and certain international organizations given the fact that they strongly support integration of sectoral approaches and SDGs within measures for implementation of the NSSD. Thus, application of complex indicators of NSSD encourages integration of targets defined in the SDGs as follows:
According to the results the application of the calculation of the ecological footprint in Montenegro for the period 2006-2015 shows a notable increase (+ 45%) in environmental footprint of Montenegro (2,7-3,9 gha per capita) compared to the almost constant biocapacity (2.70 to 2.67 gha per capita). Discrepancy between the ecological footprint and biocapacity of Montenegro indicates that demand for energy, fossil fuels and energy-intensive goods (i.e. carbon footprint component) accounts for about 45% of the footprint Montenegro, while forest ecosystems account for over 75% of the total biocapacity of the country. In 2015, the production from the biocapacity of the ecosystem represented 70% of the demand of population for renewable energy sources and services. Results also show that, during the observed period, the gap between the resources and services that Montenegro provides and resources that citizens of Montenegro use has increased, thus increasing the dependence from biocapacities imported from abroad.
However, it was found that the biocapacity gap in Montenegro, in other words a negative balance of biocapacity, i.e. biocapacity deficit, is lower than in many other European countries. Further separation of the ecological footprint of Montenegro in each spending category indicates that the footprint of agricultural land, due to the consumption of food and alcohol, and the carbon footprint, because of the traffic, represent two main categories of the ecological footprint of Montenegro, making respectively almost 20 %, and 12 % of the total footprint of the country.
Finally, evaluation of the production efficiency of the Montenegrin economy in terms of renewable energy sources and services (expressed through the economic output or GDP generated by the spent global hectare of ecological footprint) has shown that there is a significant room for improving resource efficiency of economic activities. Improving the production efficiency of key sectors in the national economy and promoting the import of goods (such as food and fuel) from countries with environmentally-efficient production processes should be in the center of change of established behavior patterns.
The introduction of ecological footprint enabled the identification of "hot spots" in the separation of biocapacity and footprint and making appropriate potential interventions by implementing the NSSD measures to overcome unsustainable development trends. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that the calculation of ecological footprint tracks the key set of natural resources and services, i.e. renewable energy and carbon sequestration capacity, without taking into consideration human, social and economic resources. The common use of the Ecological footprint and Human Development Index (HDI) can provide a better picture of Montenegro's path towards the well-being and sustainability, by making them mutually supportive. The common use of the Ecological footprint and Domestic material consumption (DMC) can ensure monitoring of a wider range of sustainable use of natural resources.
Human Development Index (HDI)
The basic right of future generations to enjoy the same natural assets at our disposal today, and therefore the right to a long-term and secure access to ecological values reflects the necessity of maintaining the availability of natural resources and basic services of the ecosystem at least on the level of current availability. While environmentally realistic requirement for sustainability and life in the context of what nature provides can be assessed through complex system indicators such as ecological footprint, material well-being of people can be approximated using composite Human Development Index (HDI). According to UNDP, HDI of 0.71 or more is considered as a "high human development". In the period from 2006 to 2013, Montenegro experienced an increase in the HDI from 0.77 to 0.79 or the growth of + 3%. The questions are: how has this growth been achieved, whether it is sustainable in the long term and whether it provides the maintenance of natural resources and basic services of ecosystem for future generations.
Combining Human Development Index and Ecological Footprint in NSSD allowed comparative assessment of the macro-level progress of countries towards achieving a comfortable life within contemporary constraints. A small increase in HDI (+ 3%) of Montenegro was achieved at the expense of a noticeable increase in the ecological footprint (+ 30%), from 2.7 gha per person (in 2006) to 3.5 gha per person (in 2013). A small increase in the HDI, which leads to a far greater increase in ecological footprint, signals that the economic development of Montenegro took the resource-inefficient path. According to the analysis presented in the NSSD there is still a potential for a change in this unsustainable path and achievement of the long-term sustainable development of Montenegro, in line with the appropriate measures defined in NSSD Action Plan.
Gender inequality index (GII)
Gender inequality index (GII) reflects inequality in three dimensions: reproductive health, position in the system and economic activity. Since 2010, the GII is part of the Global Human Development Report. However, this indicator was calculated for Montenegro for the first time only in 2014 and its value at the time was 0.172. This result positions Montenegro at the 37th place, compared to the 155 countries that are included in this report. This also means that there isn’t a drastic disparity between genders in Montenegro. For example, 17% of the seats in Parliament are held by women, 84% of the adult female population completed at least the high school (compared to 95% of men), and women's participation in the labor market is 43% (compared to 57% when it comes to men).
Domestic material consumption (DMC) and Resource Productivity (RP)
Similar to ecological footprint, DMC is a complex system indicator for cumulative monitoring of sustainability trends. The process of determining the productivity of natural resources within the national economy reflects in the assessment of the aggregate indicator of domestic material consumption (Domestic Material Consumption, DMC), in absolute and relative terms. When the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is divided by the absolute value of DMC, it results in Resource Productivity indicator (RP). Therefore, it is very important to monitor levels and dynamics of DMC and RP, in the framework of national economy and comparatively, as a part of regular statistical reporting.
The economical and efficient use of natural resources is a key component of NSSD until 2030. Consideration of sustainable development of Montenegrin society must take into account all aspects of effective management of natural resources which underlie the concept of circular economy. Efficient use of resources and the adoption of the principle of circular economy represent preconditions for smart growth and raising the competitiveness of the Montenegrin economy while reducing the environmental impact, and therefore means that can substantially contribute to the realization of the aspirations of the ecological state and the achievement of objectives in the process of accession to the European Union.
It is estimated that the construction sector has the largest share in the total consumption of material and amounts to 55%. It is followed by the energy (22%) and the manufacturing (10%) sectors. According to these estimations the agriculture and service oriented sectors have insignificant share in the total DMC. The analysis showed that the most intense material consumption has been identified in the construction sector, which consumes 71 tons of local materials to produce €1 of Gross Value Added. Also, this is the only sector, along with transportation, where has been identified a growth in material intensity in the period between 2006 and 2013 by 43%. High rates of material intensity have been recorded in the sectors of manufacturing industry and energy. However, these sectors experience a significant decline for this indicator in the reference period. The greatest resource productivity is witnessed in agriculture and fishery (€ 1.89 /t), followed by transportation. Productivity resources improved in agriculture, service-oriented and energy sector, while the construction and transportation productivity declined.
The calculated indicators have enabled the assessment of separation of economic growth from the negative impacts on the environment (decoupling) in various sectors. In the reporting period (2006-2013) the Gross Value Added of the service-oriented sector (wholesale and retail trade and hotels and restaurants) recorded a positive growth rate of 17.6%, with somewhat slower growth of domestic consumption of materials (mainly biomass) of 3.2 %. The manufacturing industry sector has also experienced relative separation, but in the opposite direction in relation to the service-oriented sector - the growth rates of Gross Value Added and DMC were negative. Gross Value Added of the manufacturing industry decreased by 17.7%, while of DMC by 61.3%. Gross Value Added for the transportation sector had been decreasing faster than Domestic Material Consumption - DMC has decreased by 16.2%, while Gross Value Added by 56.5%. In the construction sector, there was no decoupling, since the growth rate of Gross Value Added was approximately equal to the growth rate of the DMC for this sector. The growth rate of both indicators amounted around 29%.
The analysis of five possible scenarios of trends of the productivity of resources (from the assumed continuation of current practice i.e. "business as usual" scenario to the reduction in resource use by 50% until 2050) brings to conclusion that an absolute reduction of resource use by 20% until 2020 compared to average in the period 2005-2012 represents the best framework for decision and policy-making to improve the productivity and therefore the management of resources. Reducing the consumption of natural materials by 20% until 2020, recommended by the National Report on Human Development in Montenegro (UNDP, 2014), was considered acceptable by the Government of Montenegro with the obligation of additional validation and translation into sectoral policies before incorporating it in the development of national policy for sustainable development until 2030. In order to translate this target into sectoral policies and measures, it was necessary to identify the main indicators of resource efficiency at the sectoral level. The basis for this calculation came from the MONSTAT data on the consumption of the four basic categories of materials (biomass, fossil fuels, metals and minerals) for the period 2006-2013. According to these data, the largest share in the structure of Domestic Material Consumption belongs to non-metals (60%) and fossil fuels (24%). Also, during the observed period there have been improvements in resource productivity (0.1 percentage points) and reduction of material intensity (1.1 percentage points).
Distribution of reduction of total Domestic Material Consumption by 20% at the sectoral level is based on the sectors’ percentage share in the total consumption of natural materials, participation of the sector in the total GDP and contribution to improving resource productivity of each sector. Based on these data, as well as the projection of DMC per sector by 2020, there were provided recommendations aimed at reducing DMC and increase of RP, and therefore increase of resource efficiency in key sectors by 2020. Given the fact that there are large investment projects planned in these sectors in future the importance of careful design and implementation of sectoral policies and measures is of outmost importance. It is also very important to consider all available instruments to achieve the determined objectives, including economic, emission, promotional and tools based on research and development as well as on cooperation with big companies.
Energy - bearing in mind that the energy sector consumes over 20% of the total Domestic Material Consumption, certain procedures and measures which could improve resource efficiency in this sector are necessary. Also, the analysis showed that the indicators of resource efficiency are still unfavorable - material intensity is still high in the energy sector, although there was a decline of -23.1%, the productivity of resources is one of the lowest (it result in only € 0.07 GDP per ton of invested DMC), while metabolic rate (which reflects the consumption of domestic natural materials per capita) in this sector increased by 19.2%. However, given the still high rate of material, energy and emission intensity, the sector has the greatest potential for improving overall resource efficiency of the Montenegrin economy. Within the energy sector, the most consumed energy source is a key resource for carrying out economic activities. It is therefore of great importance to provide a safe supply of these resources to the users, having in mind their high emission intensity and adverse impacts on the environment. When it comes to energy consumption NSSD defines series of measures for efficient energy consumption.
Construction is a sector that has by far the largest share in Domestic Material Consumption, as well as poor efficiency, which is reflected in the increase of the indicator of material intensity by as much as 43%, reducing the resource productivity by 50%, and an increase in consumption of DMC of 25.4% per capita. Since the decrease in the Gross Value Added of construction sector was not accompanied by a drop in DMC indicators and it led to a significant deterioration of resource efficiency, this is one of the priority sectors for the improvement of resource efficiency.
It is necessary to enhance the spatial planning, improve the quality of construction works and the use of sustainable building products, raise standards in terms of energy efficiency and greater use of renewable energy in residential buildings etc. (Montenegro Development Directions, Construction Development Strategy of Montenegro, Housing Strategy). However, it is necessary to constantly monitor and improve the determined objectives and further alignment with international standards in this area.
Service-oriented sector (tourism) - in spite of the low rate of material intensity, there has been an improvement of resource efficiency in this sector by 57.4% in the previous period and an increase in metabolic rate of 26.7%. However, due to the high correlation between tourism and other services and sectors, small steps towards greening of tourism will have a dramatic impact on the greening of the entire economy. The tourism sector is a significant consumer of natural materials and producer of carbon footprint - directly or indirectly through the services of accommodation, transport, consumption of food etc.
Agriculture - the decoupling of gross Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) from the Gross Value Added (GVA) in this sector has not been recorded in the previous years, which points to an inefficient and unsustainable consumption. Although the material intensity decreased by 60%, GVA increased by 90% and neutralized the decrease. Given the importance of the agricultural sector in Montenegrin economy, along with organic farming, this sector should be one of priorities for resource efficiency. Therefore, when it comes to resource efficiency, additional measures and processes are necessary to establish certain standards in this sector.
Transport and industry - reduction of DMC in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry would not lead to more significant results, given that the share of the transportation in the aggregate DMC indicator for Montenegro amounts to 1.9%, while for industry 9.7%, with RP reduction of 3,9%. In the scenario of the reduction of Domestic Material Consumption by 20%, resource productivity of the manufacturing industry would increase by only 9.7%, while the RP of transport would go down by 3.9%. When it comes to transportation, it is important to promote forms of transport that are more favorable to the environment, and to define and enforce incentive measures in this regard, as well as to apply instruments for minimizing the negative impact of transport on the environment. It is necessary to apply new technologies (vehicles with lower emissions, lower fuel consumption, alternative fuels), as well as to introduce the recycling of vehicles after expiry of their lifetime. The industry is treated in the context of the strategic objectives dedicated to the growth of competitiveness of the Montenegrin economy.
An overview of the level of translation of SDGs into the national context is given in the table 3-1 - out of 169 individual targets of sustainable development, structured in 17 sustainable development goals, 167 have been translated into measures defined in the action plan in accordance with national circumstances and future needs. A detailed overview of the recognition of UN targets in the priority areas of NSSD is given in Table 3-3. The penultimate column named "non-integrated targets" shows whether a target was recognized as irrelevant in the context of the specific goal of sustainable development of Montenegro, while the last column named "coverage" provides summary information on the number of priority areas of NSSD that recognize specific target of sustainable development as relevant.
Table 3-3: Overview of the recognition of UN targets in relation to the priority areas of NSSD.
Baseline for measuring progress on SDGs and related targets was established by defining measures and sub-measures within NSSD. As explained in 3.2, NSSD until 2030 is a key national strategy that defines the structure of the system for the monitoring of the implementation of policies for sustainable development of Montenegro in the period until 2030. In accordance with a detailed overview of the recognition of UN targets in the priority areas of NSSD in Table 3, the following review of the integration of sustainable development targets into priority areas of NSSD can be made:
The trend to monitor the implementation of sustainable development targets will be established through the monitoring of strategic goals of NSSD 2030 which integrated targets. In relation to that, in the text which follows there is an overview of the manner of integration of sustainable development targets starting from the assessment of relevance and recognition of the targets in the SDG framework 17 presented under 3.4.1.
SDG 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere
SDG 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
SDG 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and clean energy
SDG 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries, build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
SDG 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
SDG 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
SDG 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
SDG 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
NSSD 2030 implementation success should be perceived in relation to the overall period of the establishment of national sustainable development policy in Montenegro current stage of which refers to the period of drafting the NSSD 2030. The following key milestones stand out by their importance for the implementation of the national sustainable development policy of Montenegro:
In that way, objectively perceived problems resulted in the decision on the implementation of NSSD 2007 review and the drafting of the new one which defined the goals and measures for the improvement of sustainable development policy of Montenegro by 2030. New NSSD has established a comprehensive framework to respond to challenges standing on the path towards sustainable development of Montenegrin society do 2030, taking into account the results of the implementation of the previous NSSD and the requirements in the Montenegrin EU accession process.
In that context, key element of success to be emphasized is that the new NSSD has completely taken over the UN sustainable development goals and targets and defined a reformed sustainable development governance and funding framework which is to enable successful implementation of sustainable development policy of Montenegro up to 2030.
Key success to be emphasized is the fact that the new NSSD 2030, in line with the universal and inseparable nature of sustainable development goals, umbrella, horizontal and long-term Montenegrin development strategy, which is not related solely to environment and economy, but also to irreplaceable human resources and precious social capital which are to enable prosperous development. Positioned in this way, this strategy offers the response to: established unsustainable development trends; incompatible sectorial policies both mutually and with the NSSD, then with environment protection policy; institutional framework which is not harmonized with the needs for the implementation of sustainable development policy and the requirements of good governance, incompatibility of public finance system with the need for horizontal and vertical positioning of sustainable development priorities in national strategic policies, plans and programmes, and/or incompatibility of real actions with the expressed political support and official Montenegrin commitment to sustainable development.
With a view to achieving sustainable development goals Montenegro needs to have adequate response to the key problems related to the use and management of national resources. Namely, comprehensive assessment of the condition pointed out to numerous factors leading to unsustainable trends in managing and using human, social, natural and economic resources, as well as with regards to governance for sustainable development. The overview of key drivers, pressures, conditions and impacts, following the DPCI(R) method (drivers-pressures-condition-impacts-responses), is presented in the Annex II in tables P II-6, P II-7, P II-8, P II-9 of the NSSD. Individual causes are related to several problems and vice versa – individual problems are rooted in several stated causes. The systematization of problems and causes, and the assessment of the extent to which certain groups of problems and causes hinder the achievement of sustainable development goals and weaken the chances for the long-term sustainable development of Montenegrin society, singled out key problems and weaknesses and related needs in the items 3.1 to 3.5 of the NSSD.
Starting from the determined problems and weaknesses in the implementation of the National Sustainable Development Policy, strategic objectives of the National Sustainable Development Strategy until 2030, with pertaining measures and sub-measures, are defined as the responses to such problems. In that way, the responses to the determined problems constitute at the same time national responses to the challenges in the context of the implementation of SDGs within the framework of NSSD 2030.
The third chapter of the NSSD establishes the problems which characterize sustainable development of Montenegro according to the following structure of key unsustainable development trends and sustainable development needs until 2030:
3.1. Key problems with sustainable management of human resources
3.2. Key problems with sustainable management of social resources
3.3. Key problems with the use and management of natural resources
3.4. Key problems with the use and management of economic resources
3.4.1. Climate change mitigation
3.4.2. Path towards resource efficiency
3.4.3. Sustainable consumption and production
Problems, weaknesses and shortcomings of sustainable development governance system
As it has been stated following a detailed assessment of the current condition and the determined key problems and shortcomings of Montenegrin sustainable development, determined challenges in the context of the translation of the SDGs and sustainable development targets into the national context, and following the requirements stated during the public consultation process and the consultative process and the NSSD, as well as in accordance with the assessments resulted from the consultations with relevant international entities, as it has been previously stated for enabling efficient implementation of the NSSD, the following priority sustainable development topics have been determined for Montenegro until 2030: improvement of the condition of human resources and strengthening social inclusion, support to values, norms and patterns of behaviour of importance for the sustainability of society, preservation of natural capital, introduction of green economy, sustainable development governance, funding for sustainable development. Within the framework of these priority topics of the NSSD, the issues of the reform of the system for the implementation of sustainable development policy stand out by their importance, especially the issues of institutional organization and funding for sustainable development:
These issues are addressed in more details in the chapters 3.6 and 4 of this report.
The problems of the sustainability of Montenegrin development as defined in the Chapter 3 of the NSSD and briefly presented under 3.3.4 herein are at the same time key gaps and challenges in the implementation of 17 SDGs and related targets. The NSSD 2030 Action Plan defines the responses to the established problems and gaps through sustainable measures and sub-measures structured within the framework of the NSSD strategic goals.
Below is the overview of the NSSD measures that define national responses in the context of achieving NSSD strategic goals i.e. 17 SDGs and 167 sustainable development targets in the time horizon until 2030. The overview of the targets defined within the individual measures does not include all the targets related to a given measure, but only those of relevance for the related sustainable development goal. In that regard, it is possible that certain measure is repeated several times within the same sustainable development targets.
SDG 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere
SDG 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
SDG 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
SDG 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
SDG 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
SDG 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and clean energy
SDG 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
SDG 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
SDG 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries, build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
SDG 11 „Foster active relations of key stakeholders towards development sustainability“
SDG 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
SDG 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
SDG 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
NSSD 2030 recognizes positive aspects of social policy related to vulnerable groups. These categories are entitled to the same rights to healthcare as the remaining part of the population, regardless of any feature (sex, nationality, religion, disability etc.). The scope of right to healthcare is defined by the basic package of services for all levels of healthcare. The availability of healthcare is regulated by the network, but it is necessary to work on the improvement of integrated healthcare. The state, pursuant to the principle of equality of men and women, provides equal availability and accessibility to healthcare. Health system recognizes special needs women have in relation to healthcare services, taking into consideration biological, socio-economic and psychological factors, which differ with men and women.
Also, NSSD recognizes a series of problems of relevance for socialy endangered population and groups with special needs. The fact to be emphasized among the existing problems is the one that Montenegrin social policy is oriented to a significant degree towards marginalized social groups and the application of the so called ad hoc socio-political measures aimed at mitigating social problems and not towards systemic and preventive actions. The structure of the existing social welfare system does not satisfy sufficiently the needs of vulnerable categories of population. Additionally, the system is unflexible and insufficiently adjusted to contemporary needs. Social institutions do not have at their disposal sufficient funds for the implementation of the activities harmonized with the standards. Insufficient decentralization of social welfare system conditions the problems related to recognizing the specificities of social issues at the local level. Practical application of systemic solutions for the housing of socially vulnerable and groups with special needs is evident and insufficient.
No comprehensive analyses of the existing condition of women’s health in the community are provided, identification of health problems and their needs. According to the research on population health from 2012, most of adult Roma members (82%) have their own GP, which is just slightly below Montenegrin average (89%). As much as 93% of elderly population, which also belongs to the most vulnerable population groups, have their own chosen doctor, which is above Montenegrin average (89%).
In that respect, it is particularly significant for the NSSD 2030 to recognize the importance of the improvement of the health of citizens of all ages and the reduction of inequalities in health, which comprises the implementation of the following priority measures:
The NSSD defines as a priority measure resolving housing problems of young families, families with more than three children, persons with disabilities and other groups with special needs within the framework of social housing. The precondition for the achievement of the set social objectives (growth of GDP, employment, improvement of the standard of living etc.), and/or economic progress, is further continuous improvement of education through the raising of the quality of learning and teaching. This is why the NSSD defines professional development of teaching staff of all levels, the application of contemporary teaching practices, access to early education, as well as the inclusion of children from the most vulnerable groups and children with special educational needs as mandatory, establishing active cooperation with parents and the local community, and securing higher standards of working and learning conditions.
Culture must be based on the principles of open society, tolerance, innovation, progress and multi-culturalism. Although there are positive moves with regards to the visibility and quantity of cultural activities of marginalized and/or vulnerable groups, the NSSD promotes the importance of the development of that kind of sub-culture as a significant element of contemporary cultural offer in Montenegro.
Furthermore, the NSSD recognizes the importance of encouragements for the development of private sector which respects international standards and good practice in the labour market, including also gender equality, rights of the persons with special needs and protection of children’s rights. It is necessary to ensure equal rights and opportunities for women, not only in the political, but also in the economic life of the country, access to economic resources, ownership rights, right to work, equal pay for equal work, with protection from all forms of discrimination in the labour market.
As it has been stated in the introductory part of this report, after Montenegrin participation at the Sustainable Development Summit in Johannesburg in 2002, the National Sustainable Development Council was established as an advisory body to the Government of Montenegro, while the ministry competent for environment protection was entrusted with the actual implementation of sustainable development policy. That meant the beginning of the building of institutional framework for the implementation of sustainable development policy. Until 2002, the Council had been chaired by the Prime Minister, and as of 2013 it is the President of Montenegro who has been chairing it. The Sustainable Development Office was active in the period from 2006 to 2011. It had been established with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to offer administrative and technical support to the work of the National Council within the framework of the General Secretariat of the Government. In June 2011, the Office was integrated into the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism, continuing to operate as a Department for the Support to the National Council, or as of September 2015, as the Department for Sustainable Development and Integrated Coastal Zone Management.
In relation to the established weaknesses and problems with the implementation of sustainable development policy, the responses to the key challenges in the sustainable development governance system of Montenegro are grouped through the application of the following strategic approaches: integration, coherence, inclusion and implementation. In this respect, strategic NSSD goals in the context of the improvement of the system of sustainable development governance in the period until 2030 are as follows:
The adoption of Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 imposes the necessity of consolidation of sustainable development institutional framework. Besides the steps being undertaken at the international level, primarily through the strengthening of the functions of High Level Political Forum, true progress is possible only through the strengthening of national sustainable development systems. This can be achieved with the strengthening of the existing institutional capacities, especially those responsible for central coordination, including the upgrade of the legislative and strategic framework and translation of declarative political commitment into powerful mechanisms of political support to the fulfilment of sustainable development goals and targets.
Pursuant to the abovementioned and taking into consideration positive international practice and models of sustainable development governance, which have been established in certain countries, it is necessary to keep the organization of sustainable development governance system at two levels: political and professional-administrative one.
At the political level of action it is necessary to strengthen the implementation of the decisions of the National Council for Sustainable Development, climate change and integrated management of the coastal area by means of strengthening the capacities of its expert bodies.
At the professional-administrative level, the functioning of the National Council should be improved through the strengthening of inter-sectorial cooperation and the activity of the Sustainable Development Coordination body.
Compatible with the functioning of the Coordination body, expert working groups of the National Council should continue working in accordance with the mandate determined by the decision on their formation. In relation to the Coordination body, the working groups should act as expert bodies of the National Council closely focused on the support in the preparation of expert materials deliberated by the National Council, taking into account the recommendations and guidelines of the Coordination Body as a wider professional forum for sustainable development issues.
Priority measures for achieving the NSSD 203 strategic goal – Conduct reform of the institutional organization of sustainable development governance system are as follows:
Starting from the existing institutional organization, the NSSD 2030 defines the objectives and measures for further strengthening of sustainable development governance capacities. Following expert analyses and requests expressed during the public consultation process on the NSSD, the duty of reforming the National Council for Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Integrated Management of the Coastal Area was determined in a way to be transformed from an advisory Government body into the State Council. The National Council should enable more efficient:
Successful fulfilment of the stated functions will enable efficient steering to the National Council over the implementation of the NSSD and/or Sustainable Development Agenda 2030, and to fulfil its advisory support to the Government for the implementation of sustainable development policy in a functional way.
In the context of the strengthening of the political level of sustainable development governance, the NSSD recognizes the importance of the inclusion of the Parliament of Montenegro in the implementation of the NSSD 2030. This is why a new element has been introduced in the Montenegrin sustainable development governance system – informing the Parliament on the results of the implementation of the NSSD by the Government of Montenegro.
In the period of drafting the NSSD and conducting the consultative process, the existing coordination mechanisms of the National Sustainable Development Council – Coordination body and permanent expert working groups of the NCSD enabled the participation of all interested parties at the national and local level. Likewise, in the period of the implementation of the NSSD 2030 special importance will be given to these mechanisms whose application should enable further integration of various relevant entities at the national and local governance level. In this respect, at the professional-administrative level of sustainable development governance system inter-sectorial cooperation will be strengthened through the activities of the Sustainable Development Coordination Body. This body should exercise its key functions successfully so that it:
The above functions should strengthen the support of the Coordination Body to the National Council for Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Integrated Management of Coastal Area. The Coordination Body should be composed of the representatives appointed on a professional level from all relevant sectors, professional institutions, civil sector and other relevant entities important for the sustainable development of the society.
Compatible with the functioning of the Coordination Body expert working groups of the National Council should continue working in line with the mandate fixed in the decisions on their establishment. In relation to the Coordination Body, the working groups should act as the expert bodies of the National Council which are closely focused on the support in the preparation of expert materials considered by the National Council, taking into considerations the recommendations and guidelines of the Coordination Body as a broader professional forum for the issues of sustainable development.
Central position within sustainable development governance system belongs to the unit which will be entrusted with sustainable development policy including the coordination of the implementation of the NSSD and/or sustainable development Agenda 2030. Three possible scenarios have been analysed for the strengthening of that element of professional-administrative level of organization of sustainable development governance system:
EXISTING SCENARIO – “BUSSINESS AS USUAL”: improvement of the existing structure of the Department through the increase in the number of employees and the improvement of their references for carrying out expert tasks in the implementation of sustainable development policy;
REALISTIC SCENARIO: transformation of the Department into a special sector – Directorate General with the competences for the implementation of sustainable development policy;
OPTIMAL SCENARIO: functioning of the unit with the competences for the implementation of sustainable development policy in the Prime Minister Cabinet.
Since there is no sector that could offer adequate institutional capacity for the implementation of an umbrella and horizontal policy such as sustainable development, the NSSD elaborated optimal scenario and suggested the establishment of Sustainable Development Office or other suitable structure for the Prime Minister cabinet as an optimal form of institutional organization (with at least 10 highly professional employees). The reform of sustainable development governance system must eliminate obvious lack of staff in public administration bodies. Thus, in all ministries and local self-governments at least one full-time employee should be hired to work on sustainable development tasks in the context of the implementation of the duties from the NSSD 2030.
At this level of the organization of sustainable development governance system the Centre for Sustainable Development will also play a significant role. The Centre should continue functioning as a programme jointly implemented by the UNDP Office to Montenegro and the Government of Montenegro according to the model of “close partnership” as presented under 188.8.131.52 concerning the partnership between the Government and the UNDP.
Also, the NSSD recognizes the importance of separating institutional organization for the implementation of sustainable development policy from the implementation of environment protection policy, both because of the horizontal broader context of sustainable development policy and because of very limited possibilities for the impact of environment protection sector on sectorial policies.
Functional systemic approach in the implementation of sustainable development policy and sectorial policies is found in the midst of the responses to the problems which characterize the existing sustainable development governance system. Viewed globally, the problem of the lack of inter-sectorial coordination is present to the extent which jeopardizes the chances for sustainable development. Hence, the reform of the sustainable development governance system should eliminate the fragmentation of competences of public administration bodies, their inconsistency and overlapping in the area of crucial importance for the sustainable development of Montenegrin society. It is necessary to strengthen the capacities of the institutions and more efficient cooperation at all levels of public administration system, as well as between public administration and civil, business and private sector, and academic community for the purpose of integrated planning on the strategic (sectorial and horizontal strategies, plans, programmes) and operational level (projects), creating thus the conditions for the implementation of sustainable goals and targets. Institutional coherence and alignment of sectorial policies and responses should be interwoven into the everyday activities of competent bodies and institutions at the local and national level, as well as of the entities outside public administration system. There is a need for expedient employment of all relevant entities for the purpose of reaching the common goal – sustainable development of Montenegro. Thereat, active participation of local self-governments and civil society organizations has special significance for resolving the problems that impact citizens’ lives.
Besides the participation within the frameworks of coordination mechanisms stated under 3.6.3, the participation of various sectors will also be enabled through the amendments of sector policies and their alignment with the NSSD and/or Sustainable Development Agenda 2030. In the period from 2017-2018 activities should be undertaken for the alignment of sector policies with the NSSD measures since unsustainable development trends have been established both qualitatively and quantitatively, which is the consequence of considerable inconsistency of sectorial policies, both mutually and with the sustainable development strategy. Detailed analysis of the strategies, programmes and plans in relation to the NSSD 2030 should be made starting from such problem identification.
Within the framework of the improvement of institutional organization for the implementation of sustainable development policy, it is particularly important to enable stable sustainable development financing. As budget planning, which is based on achieving results, constitutes one of the preconditions for efficient implementation of sustainable development policy, it is necessary to strengthen the capacities of the Ministry of Finance. According to the recommendations of the Regional UNDP Centre, having the seat in Istanbul, the NSSD suggested that at least one employee of the Ministry of Finance be entrusted with sustainable development funding in order for the budget planning and execution process to be improved from the point of view of organization and personnel, in accordance with the needs of the implementation of the NSSD 2030. Active participation of the sector will be particularly important in the establishment of the system for the monitoring of the progress and reporting on the NSSD progress as stated under 3.6.6 and 5 herein.
So far, civil sector has taken active part in the work of the National Council by considering the most important questions the Council has been dealing with, including the presentation of its assessments and proposals, as well as direct participation in the work of the Council. This approach will also be supported in the period until 2030, both through the participation of the NGOs in the work of the Council and through the Coordination mechanism and its expert working bodies.
Measuring and assessing the effectiveness of the measures implemented within the framework of the NSSD makes it possible to register changes which are the results of their implementation. Non-existence of the functional system for the monitoring of the implementation of sustainable development policy constitutes one of the key problems of sustainable development governance system. Although in the previous period of the monitoring of the implementation of the NSSD 2007 Action Plan numerous commitments had been established aimed at further development of the monitoring and reporting system, the planned progress has not been achieved. Thus, no weaknesses of the information system have been eliminated, especially in the context of the elaboration of the initial set of indicators of sustainable development; no new indicators have been introduced for which there had been no possibility of introduction in the 2007 monitoring system; no problems have been eliminated associated with the lack and/or unavailability of usable data and their use for monitoring the changes during the implementation of the defined goals, measures and actions and the assessment of the effects of their implementation; no knowledge and experience have been improved in the application of indicators as modern mechanisms of decision making based on elaborated and objective criteria and related systematically collected and comparable time data series. Also, one of the key causes of such condition was not eliminated in the previous period – namely, mutual incompatibility of the existing databases and disatisfactory communication and data exchange among numerous entities with the competences for the implementation of the NSSD measures. This is primarily relevant for the existence of discord between the data published by the MONSTAT, as a competent Institute for Statistics, and the data published by individual sectors, public administration boddies, public and scientific institutions, the data in the possession of public administration and scientific and professional institutions, as well as for the significant discord between the structure, content and methodology for collecting of mentioned data groups with relevant international context, like the reporting systems within the framework of certain multilateral agreements with UN, European Environment Protection Agency, as well as EUROSTAT. Besides above mentioned, sectoral data are very often not prepared and adjusted to the needs of their use in other sectors which considerably undermines their practical utilitarian value.
For the purpose of overcoming these problems, the NSSD 2030 lays down the structure of the system for the monitoring of the implementation of Montenegrin sustainable development policy in the period until 2030, as well as the measures for the improvement of the condition of the information system and databases. The Action Plan to the NSSD defines the duties for the implementation of the NSSD measures to be discharged by a large number of responsible entities at the national and local level, both within the public administration system and outside it.
The Chapter 7 to the NSSD brings the platform for the translation of the UN sustainable development goals and indicators into the national context. As it has been explained in the Chapter 5 herein the successfulness of the monitoring and reporting on the progress in the implementation of the NSSD will depend on the reform of the statistical monitoring of the progress in the implementation of the NSSD 2030. The process of the collection of data necessary for the application of the integrated system of indicators (indicators from the UN list, national indicators, cumulative indicators and indicators of international organizations) will be positioned in such a way as to provide comparable time series and data continuity, as well as gradual spreading of the programmes for the monitoring of sustainable development goals and indicators based on above mentioned. This job should be conducted by 8 official generators of statistical data headed by the Institute for Statistics of Montenegro - MONSTAT and other 17 administrative data generators.
Transformation of the existing governance capacities for the implementation of sustainable development policy into a modern, efficient and responsible sustainable development governance system must be based on the measurability of results and effects of the work of public administration, continuous improvement of employees’ competences, enhancing of governance transparency and programme budgeting of sustainable development priorities.
To define desired outcomes in relation to the determined problems one should specify the priorities and related goals and responses for the purpose of the strengthening of sustainable development governance system. It is necessary to have continuous objective monitoring of the expected effects of the sectors, public administration bodies and institutions, their organizational units and sub-units, in relation to the set outcomes. Objectivity, simplicity and quantitative measurability of the achieved progress should be enabled. As the established goals will not necessarily produce satisfactory results and effects in practice, monitoring of actual effects is the most important mechanism for the assessment of the implementation of strategic policies and plans of importance for the sustainable development of the society.
Responsibility for the achieved effect/failure must also be in the centre of good sustainable development governance. The same applies to the foreseeability in the activities, observance of regulations and quality involvement of all relevant stakeholders. This approach must strengthen personal accountability for the achievement of the set objectives in relation to the work plans, as well as the duty of setting precise tasks, duties and expected results.
Concurrently, assessment must be fair and/or based on the application of justified, clear and unambiguous criteria. It is necessary to link the assessment system with the system of remuneration of the outstanding results of work and with the sanctioning of poor performance.
It is necessary to enhance professionalism in synergy with the increase in the motivation of the employed, amongst other things with the introduction of the system of competitive wages and career promotion based on results.
Participation of all the stakeholders must be encouraged, especially in an impartial manner. The participation of professional public in public consultation and planning processes of importance for the sustainable development of the society must be based on professionalism, satisfying social interest to the greatest possible degree.
It is particularly important to improve governance transparency through timely information of interested public and enhancing the possibilities for public to present their opinions and objections influencing thus on the work of public administration in the early stage of enacting and implementation of regulations, public policies, programmes and projects.
This is why the NSSD has defined as its strategic goal the strengthening of sustainable development governance system which should be achieved in the first place through the implementation of the following measures:
Establish the measurability of the results of work of public administration, SDG 16 (16.6, 16.7, 16.10, 16.b), 17 (17.9, 17.18, 17.19),
Strengthen the participation of interested and professional public in the enactment and implementation of decisions of importance for sustainable development, SDG 16 (16.6, 16.7).
The means for the implementation of the NSSD 2030 are mobilized from various funding sources, and their available amount will depend, amongst other things, on the achievement of the projected macroeconomic trends of the national economy. The achievement of development projections of Montenegro on the principles of sustainable development – assumption which integrates the capacity of domestic sustainable development funding sources (public and private sources), country’s position in international economic relations (international trade), as well as the capacity for the mobilization of funds from international public and private sources (FDI, credits, international development cooperation). In accordance with the recommendations of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the mobilization of funds for the financing of sustainable development is of crucial importance for the successful implementation of the NSSD 2030.
Figure 4-1: Real GDP growth in Montenegro 1991-2014 and projections untill 2017 (UNSTAT; MONSTAT; 2016)
As shown in the above Graph 1, twenty-five years of Montenegrin transition have been marked by a decade of transitional recession (1990-1999), a period of gradual recovery up to the renewal of Montenegrin independence, followed by triennial period of investment boom, with average GDP growth rate of 9%, as well as a six-year period of deep economic crisis and gradual recovery of economic activity. Real GDP from 1990 was reached only in 2007. In 2015 Montenegrin GDP reached € 3.595 mil, with GDP/pc 5.780 €.
Figure 4-2 State debt , Net FDI and Balance of current transactions in Montenegro - 2009-2016
Selected economic indicators are presented in the Annex I of this report.
Measures which foster sustainable development must be sensitive to climate change, must have reasonable impacts on environment and must be based on respecting human rights.
Main sources of financing for sustainable development should be state budget, but also the budgets of local self-governments and earmarked funds. Funds can also be secured through donations, credits, international assistance, as well as from the instruments, programmes and funds of the EU, UN and other international development partners of Montenegro.
Domestic funding sources are generated by the achieved economic growth and development, which include the change of economic structure and production and consumption patterns. For all countries, public policies and mobilization and efficient use of domestic resources, constitute central actions to be conducted on the principles of national ownership over management process, i.e. sustainable development funding. Improved social, environmental and overall economic policy, which includes counter-cyclical fiscal policy, good management on all levels and developed people friendly institutions – are necessary for achieving sustainable development goals. This primarily means strengthening fiscal policy tools and the ones of tax administration itself, in order to collect additional tax revenues at the level of the state and at the level of local self-governments, respecting the principle of fairness, transparency, efficiency and effectiveness of the tax system.
In order to achieve sustainable development goals by 2030 additional domestic public sources are necessary, which are supplemented by the appropriate international support.
In line with the UN sustainable development agenda 2030, Montenegro will continuously:
The NSSD 2030 defined two strategic goals and a whole series of measures for the establishment of adequate system for financing fo sustainable development:
Measures defined in this way have significant impact on the achievement of sustainable development goals 12 and 17, while they are concurrently related to the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, which amongst other things established: domestic environment funding public sources (items 20-34), domestic and international private business and finances (items 35-49), international development cooperation (items 50-78), science, technology, innovations and capacity development (items 114-124), as well as the issues of data and further monitoring of the implementation of the strategy (items 133-125).
The overview of the revenue and expenditure side of sustainable development funding budget through the mobilization of domestic sources is presented in the Annex 2.
Measures defined in such a way have significant influence on the achievement of the sustainable development goals 12 and 17. Also, the measures are directly linked to the Addis Ababa Action Agenda in which, amongst other things, environment funding sources have been recognized – domestic public sources for the funding of environment (items 20-34) and domestic and international private business and finances (items 35-49); international development cooperation (items 50-78); fair international trade for all (items 79-91); level of indebtedness and public debt management (items 93-102); science, technology, innovations and capacity development (items 114-124); as well as the issues of data and further monitoring of the implementation of the strategy (items 133-125). Also, it can be assessed that national economy greening priorities, instruments and measures for the implementation of these are compatible with the possibilities and commitments in the context of the implementation of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.
For the future monitoring and reporting on the progress in the achievement of sustainable development goals in Montenegro very important is the strategic NSSD goal “Establish the system for monitoring the sustainability of national development including the monitoring of the implementation of sustainable development goals”. This goal comprises priority implementation of the following measures:
Enable continuous implementation of the programme of translation of sustainable development goals into the national context and building national capacities for their efficient implementation in the forthcoming biennial, SDG 16 (16.6, 16.7, 16.b), SDG 17 (17.9, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19),
Establish the information system for the NSSD implementation monitoring based on sustainable development goals and indicators, SDG 17 (17.9, 17.16, 17.18, 17.19).
These measures, accompanied by the appropriate sub-measures, will enable a functional system for the monitoring of sustainable development policy implementation until 2030 contributing to the wellbeing of the society and the quality of citizens’ lives. Such methodology, besides the horizontal dimension of data collection and processing for the purpose of monitoring the NSSD strategic goals, has also got its vertical dimension – linking of Montenegro with the system of reporting on the implementation of the UN sustainable development goals.
Without precise measuring of success in the implementation and the assessment of the effectiveness of sustainable development measures it is not possible to monitor the outcomes of the implementation of the NSSD. This is exactly the experience of Montenegro gained from the monitoring and reporting on the implementation of the NSSD from 2007 to 2012. The following key weaknesses were identified on that occasion: 1) lack of comprehensive list of national sustainable development indicators which would comprise qualitative and precisely measurable quantitative indicators of the condition, process and outcome of the sustainable development of Montenegro; and 2) non-established functional information data processing system for the calculation of sustainable development indicators, with the enabled compatibility of the existing databases and satisfactory communication of numerous entities with the competences for the implementation of the NSSD measures in the context of harmonization of data processing and their exchange. These weaknesses resulted in the impossibility of quantifying the trends in the implementation of the NSSD measures, and directing the reporting system solely towards the monitoring of the outcome, without a possibility of insight into the trends of the processes related to the implementation of sustainable development measures. This rendered impossible the derivation of thorough assessments as to how the processes had led to the achievement of the planned outcomes, or if not, why it had not been possible to achieve the planned outcomes.
With the purpose of creating conditions for measuring the sustainability of national development within the time horizon of the NSSD 2030, decisive step has been made towards overcoming the weaknesses from the previous stage of the NSSD implementation and establishing a functional system which enables precise measurability of the processes and outcomes, both planned - expected and the unplanned ones. This is crucial issue for the efficient monitoring and reporting on the implementation of sustainable development policy until 2030.
In order to establish the system for progress monitoring and for reporting on NSSD 2030 implementation, the anaysis of 241 sustainable development indicators was made. The indicators had been laid down by the UN Statistical Commission at is 47th session held from 8th – 11th March 2016. Readiness and ability of national institutions to accept the indicators had been assessed in the first place, followed by the planning of the dynamics for the introduction of the indicators from the UN List into the national reporting system.
It is important to mention that the UN Statistical Commission did not define the methodology for the calculation of all indicators at its 47th session. As stated under chapter 3.2.2 there is still no methodology for 75 indicators (31.1% of the total number of 241 indicators), but the said UN commission assumed the responsibility to establish the missing methodologies in the forthcoming period. Besides, one should have in mind that certain indicators are not relevant for Montenegro, as well as that one part of indicators can be contrary to the fulfilment of other Montenegrin national and international commitments. In this way, we come to the figure of 180 SDG indicators the introduction of which needs to be planned. Framework year for the introduction of these indicators is 2024, when monitoring and reporting is planned to start for 180 SDG indicators (74.7% of the total number). The overview of the introduction of indicators from the UN List into the monitoring system in Montenegro is presented in the table 5-1.
Table 5-1 Dynamics for the monitoring of indicators from the UN List in Montenegro
Besides the indicators from the UN list for progress monitoring and reporting on the NSSD 2030 implementation, the integrated system of indicators consists of three more groups of indicators: relevant national indicators, selected indicators of relevant international organizations and selected cumulative indicators (refer to 5.4).
From the point of view of the inclusion of indicators to monitor the implementation of the NSSD measures, the approach was applied according to which certain indicators or group of indicators are defined as relevant for the monitoring of several measures and/or sub-measures with the framework of certain priority topics.
In the NSSD chapter dedicated to the analysis and assessment of the condition of national resources,the values of baseline indicators available in the national context were considered for every area: human capital, social capital, natural capital, economic capital, sustainable development financing and governance. Some baseline indicators are specifically presented in the NSSD section dedicated to the analysis of the key unsustainable trends applying the DPSIR methodology.
The Action Plan presents direct link between strategic goals, measures and sub-measures and the appropriate sustainable development indicators (including also the proposed national indicators, some indicators of relevant international organizations, as well as cumulative indicators). Separate column shows targeted outcomes in 2020 and/or 2030 for progress to be achieved in the implementation of the NSSD measures with its qualitative and quantitative dimension.
In this way, clear link was established among the goals, baseline values of the indicators and targeted outcomes, which creates an assumption for the efficient monitoring system of progress in the implementation of the NSSD.
Special attention is dedicated to the analysis of the administrative capacities of the institutions involved in the monitoring process, as well as to the clear division of competences – which institution can generate statistical and administrative data for the needs of NSSD reporting, and what kind of coordination and reporting mechanism needs to be developed.
Several consultative meetings were held with all involved institutions. The table 5-2 shows the overview of the readiness of Montenegrin institutions to assume the generation of statistical data for the needs of reporting on the NSSD 2030 implementation.
Table 5-2Overview of statistical data generators in relation to the status, number of indicators which institutions are competent for, and recommendations
Besides eight official generators of statistics in Montenegrin statistical system, which will be included in the NSSD reporting mechanism (8), another 18 institutions have been recognized, so called administrative statistics generators, two of which have had the recommendations issued to enter into the system of official data generators.
Special indicator acceptance dynamics has been defined for every institution until 2024.
Besides sustainable development indicators developed by the UN, Montenegrin NSSD 2030 also introduces:
Table 5-3 NSSD Montenegro: Integrated monitoring framework per areas
Comprehensive analysis of sustainable development indicators from the UN List, national, international and complex indicators resulted in the establishment of integrated system for the monitoring of Montenegrin sustainable development trends as presented in the Table 5-3.
This system enables:
Since the Statistical Institute of Montenegro (MONSTAT) is a public administration body competent for statistical tasks, leading institution and principal disseminator of statistical data, as well as responsible professional lead entity, organizer and coordinator of the system of official statistics and the institution which represents official statistics of Montenegro in the international statistical system, its role will be crucial in strengthening total capacities of all generators of statistical and administrative data in the context of the support to high quality reporting for the needs of the NSSD.
Key stage for successful implementation of the NSSD, thus also for the achievement of sustainable development of Montenegro, is progress monitoring and reporting on the results of its implementation. The gaps in the implementation of the previous NSSD 2007 are related exactly to this stage. The same problem characterizes the processes of reporting on the implementation of other national strategic documents, therefore it can be concluded that this represents a systemic problem.
The implementation and evaluation process has got several stages, and every one of them is very significant in order for the entire process to constitute a functional unity. It is necessary for this process to be set in such a way that the duties and responsibilities of all the entities involved in the NSSD implementation are precisely defined, with specified procedures and form for the processing and exchange of data for the purpose of preparing the reports on the NSSD implementation, and/or Sustainable Development Agenda 2030. Also, based on previous bad experiences it is necessary to avoid misunderstandings regarding duties and tasks of the entities entrusted with the NSSD implementation.
On the occasion of drafting the First pilot report on the implementation of the NSSD in 2019 it will be determined the extent to which the progress has been achieved in the introduction of the integrated system for the monitoring of sustainable development trends in Montenegro by 2018. 42.3% of sustainable development indicators should be introduced into the system of statistical monitoring.
The stages in the process of monitoring and implementation of the NSSD are the following: 1) data collection, 2) reporting, 3) analysis of the obtained data, 4) drafting recommendations for the improvement of the document and 5) periodic NSSD review. The first three stages will be supported by the functional information system, the description which is to follow.
Starting from the dynamics of the evaluation of the NSSD implementation process presented in the table 5-4, in the initial implementation stage it is necessary to prepare a detailed programme of activities and templates for the drafting of the progress report, in order to facilitate and make more efficient the entire monitoring and implementation process until 2030 through methodological harmonization of individual stages. For every stage, the programme of activities should define precise guidelines on: methodology to be applied, the form and content of the report, tasks of responsible entities, etc. This facilitates the analysis of individually collected inputs and enables comparability of the obtained data, improves the efficiency of the working process and produces high quality data which enable informed and substantiated integration of decisions important for the improvement of sustainable development policy. All collected data should be accessible to public in all stages.
The establishment of functional information system and databases constitutes the basis for successful measurement of the progress in the implementation of the NSSD 2030. It is very important to bear in mind in the process of designing and developing this system that it should be at the service of the beneficiaries and facilitate input, inspection and analysis of the data, and not by any means become a burden and a bottleneck of the system for the monitoring of this strategy. The established system should be straightforward, efficient and user friendly since its primary purpose is to facilitate the monitoring of the implementation in order for the NSSD to be implemented in a high quality manner, and not to be a cumbersome and inefficient system which will not have practical application.
Functional information system organized in this way should enable not only simultaneous data collection by the entities responsible for the monitoring of individual sustainable development indicators, and/or NSSD measures, but also their archiving and further processing with the purpose of efficient national or international reporting.
There are several ways to organize and develop such an information system. One of the possibilities is to use for that purpose the existing online reporting system entitled IRIS (Indicator Reporting Information System). This system developed through the cooperation between UNEP and AGEDI (Abu Dhabi Global Environmental Data Initiative) enables data exchange among different entities with assigned authorities. In the specific case, these entities could be Montenegrin institutions, official and administrative statistics generators, which could simultaneously collect, analyse and publish high quality information through this system.
Following the establishment at the national level, IRIS could be linked with recently developed UNEP Live Platform, which supports dynamic, interactive assessment and reporting by UN member states on the processes at the international level through a series of analytical, visual and mapping tools. The possibility for linking and readiness of the UNEP to offer IRIS to Montenegro free of charge, are considerable advantages which recommend this online system for the monitoring of the NSSD implementation.
Following the installation, IRIS would be fully owned and under the control of Montenegro. It should be managed by the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism, i.e. the unit which will be in charge of the implementation of the NSSD 2030, within the framework of the unified information system managed by the Ministry for Information Society and Telecommunications. All the entities responsible for the NSSD implementation will have access to such online system. The functioning of the IRIS is described below, with its graphic presentation on the Figure 5-1.
Figure 5-1 SDGs - Indicator reporting & monitoring system
With the establishment of the IRIS the monitoring of the NSSD 2030 implementation will function through the following steps:
Although IRIS is currently identified as the most adequate option, as this is a platform which is ready to be used, it is possible for an opportunity to arise in the future for additional upgrade of the information system for the monitoring of the NSSD implementation.
The analysis and drafting of the recommendations for the improvement of the NSSD implementation on the basis of the prepared progress reports is the next, very important, step in the implementation of the NSSD. Namely, exactly in this stage conclusions are made on the process and results achieved with the implementation of this strategy. Therefore, it is very important for the analysis not to be reduced solely to the necessary comparison of the achieved values of indicators. In order to react timely and adequately as well as correctively to the NSSD implementation process, the analysis must be well prepared in order to indicate that good results can be further improved and, at the same time, to recognize key reasons for poorer implementation of the other ones. Besides the extent of the achievement of the set goals, it is necessary to observe the effects of the inclusion of the entities with the duty to implement the NSSD, but also the reactions of all interested parties and the broadest public. All these suggestions and observations need to be recorded and used as the guidelines for further improvement of the document and the overall process of its implementation until 2030. The established online system should strengthen the application of responsibility mechanisms and enable undisturbed participation of citizens and all interested parties in the monitoring of the NSSD implementation, but also in the shaping of the process itself.
The period of the gradual implementation will start after the adoption of the NSSD 2030 by the Government of Montenegro.
Expected main challenges in the forthcoming NSSD implementation period are:
Everything stated so far has been elaborated in details through the Action Plan for the implementation of the NSOR, which comprises clear objectives, measures and sub-measures, indicators, target outcomes, as well as lead entities (lead entity and the entities involved in the implementation).
Montenegro is among the group of UN member countries which have officially adopted a key development document – National Strategy for Sustainable Development until 2030, which follows the UN Agenda 2030.
Environmental, economic and social aspects of the development of Montenegro in recent decades have indicated that needs of future generations might be endangered through qualitative and quantitative degradation of natural resources and limited availability of other resources (human resources as development assumption and economic capital). On the basis of the gained experience and lessons learnt, and in relation to the duties towards future generations and from the experiences of key international actors which trace the path towards sustainability through global dialogue, in the period by 2030 it is necessary to establish the four-dimension development concept based on access according to which the production of assets and delivering of services that are crucial for the improvement of material, mental and spiritual wellbeing of every generation requires four fundamental, necessary resources: human, social, natural and economic. These are key national resources which must be sustainable, preserving the “right to development” for every subsequent generation. The right to development from the point of view is viewed in relation to the right of individuals, families and family values and broadest social groups in the framework of governance at the national level and at the level of local communities. Our responsibility towards future generations obliges us to the approach according to which humans are in the centre of development which enables sustainable and mutually linked valorization of the four groups of national resources.
Annex 1 Selected macroeconomic indicators in Montenegro 2007 – 2015
Annex 2 Framework for sustainable financing of environment and protection of natural capital